Guide to network tools 1993

EARN Association

September 15, 1993

Document Number: 2.0

Guide to Network Resource Tools

Notice

This document has been compiled and produced by the EARN

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Document version: 2.0

ISBN 2-910286-03-7

(ISBN 2-910286-01-0 Version 1.0)

(c) EARN Association, 1993

Preface to the Second Edition

When the first version of the Guide to Network Resource Tools was

released, we had no idea how popular it would become, and how

quickly it would spread beyond the EARN community. While much had

already been written on these tools, a booklet with brief expla-

nations and instructions struck a responsive chord.

In this second edition, we have tried to expand the scope, both

in terms of the number of networking tools covered and the size

of the audience at which it is aimed. While the Internet contin-

ues to grow at an explosive rate, there is still a large communi-

ty of users, within EARN and beyond, with only electronic mail

connectivity to the world-wide network. We have tried to show how

they too can utilize these networking tools.

The work of many people is reflected here, but we owe our great-

est debt of thanks to the developers and authors of the network

tools and documentation. Their work serves as the basis for this

guide.

We also wish to thank all those who have provided comments, crit-

icisms and suggestions for the guide. Many of the improvements in

the second edition are the result of their feedback and encour-

agement. In particular, we have benefitted from the cooperation

of the RARE Working Group on Information Services and User Sup-

port. We look forward to close collaboration with them on future

editions of this guide as well as on other projects.

The Guide to Network Resource Tools has been produced by the

staff of the EARN Association, under the direction of the EARN

Group on Information Services. Any errors or inaccuracies in this

guide are the sole responsibility of the EARN staff. We welcome

and encourage your feedback. Please send comments, criticisms,

corrections, suggestions for future editions and even praise to

the electronic mail address:

EARNDOC@EARNCC.BITNET

If you have any questions or queries on the use of these tools or

on other aspects of networking, and you are in an EARN member

country, you can get help and advice by sending your questions by

electronic mail to the EARN consulting service at:

NETHELP@EARNCC.BITNET

The EARN Staff

Introduction

As the worldwide academic computer network grows and expands far

beyond its previous confines, so the resources and services

available on the network evolve and multiply at a dizzying rate.

The typical user is hardpressed to keep up with this explosive

growth. Fortunately, a number of tools are available to facili-

tate the task of locating and retrieving network resources, so

that users anywhere can utilize texts, data, software and infor-

mation for public access. Facilities to explore public domain

software repositories, to consult mailing list archives and data-

bases, to retrieve directory information and to participate in

global group discussions are now available to all.

The key to exploiting these resources is a server, special soft-

ware on a computer somewhere in the network which accepts

requests (or queries or commands) and sends a response automati-

cally. The requestor does not have to be working on the same com-

puter (or even in the same part of the world) in order to use the

server. Many servers accept requests via electronic mail, so that

often the requestor needs not even be on the same computer net-

work as the server. In many cases, servers are interconnected so

that once you have established contact with one server, you can

easily communicate with other servers as well.

Today, many users have powerful computers on the desktop, with

advanced graphical, audio and storage capabilities, which are

connected to the network. This fact has given rise to what is

known as the client-server model. Users can have special software

on their local computer called a client which can utilize the

capabilities of that computer and can also communicate with a

server on the network. These clients provide an easy-to-use,

intuitive user interface, allow use of pointing devices such as a

mouse, and exploit other local features. The client sends the

user's requests to a server using a standardized format (called a

protocol) and the server sends its response in a condensed format

which the client displays to the user in a more readable way.

The tools described in this guide have been divided into six

functional areas. Actually, several of the tools have several

different functions, and have been classified according to their

main purpose. The first section, Exploring the network, covers

two services, Gopher and World-Wide Web, which use the client-

server model to provide a means of moving through a wide range of

network sources and resources in a uniform and intuitive way. A

tool for searching in a wide range of different databases located

throughout the network, WAIS, is documented in the section

Searching databases. The problem of knowing where to find files

and programs in the network is addressed in the third section,

Finding network resources, which deals with archie. Three tools

for finding people, computers and their network addresses, WHOIS,

X.500 and Netfind, are discussed in section four, Finding people

and computers. While just about all of these network tools can be

used to get files of one sort or another, there are a few servers

available for getting files easily and efficiently from various

repositories in the network. Two of these servers, TRICKLE and

BITFTP, are covered in section five on Getting files. The sixth

section deals with what is perhaps the most popular of all the

network resources, discussion groups on every imaginable topic.

The two tools discussed in this section are LISTSERV and Netnews

(Usenet). The final section gives brief descriptions and pointers

for a number of tools which were not mainstream enough to get a

full description. Some are still in the developmental stage

(Prospero), some are relatively unknown outside a particular net-

work (ASTRA and Netserv from EARN/Bitnet and Mailbase from JANET)

and some are meant for chatting rather than work (Relay and IRC).

The purpose of this guide is to supply the basic information that

anyone on the network needs to try out and begin using these

tools. A basic knowledge of networking terminology has been

assumed, as well as familiarity with the basic tools of network-

ing: electronic mail (often referred to as e-mail or simply mail

throughout this guide) and, for those connected to the Internet,

FTP (file transfer protocol) and Telnet (remote login). It is

beyond the scope of this guide to describe these basic tools. The

example in the BITFTP section of this guide shows how one can use

BITFTP to get guides to these tools over the network.

Part 1

EXPLORING THE NETWORK

GOPHER

What is Gopher

The Internet Gopher, or simply Gopher, is a distributed document

delivery service. It allows users to explore, search and retrieve

information residing on different locations in a seamless fash-

ion.

When browsing it, the information appears to the user as a series

of nested menus. This kind of menu structure resembles the organ-

ization of a directory with many subdirectories and files. The

subdirectories and the files may be located either on the local

server site or on remote sites served by other Gopher servers.

From the user point of view, all information items presented on

the menus appear to come from the same place.

The information can be a text or binary file, directory informa-

tion (loosely called phone book), image or sound. In addition,

Gopher offers gateways to other information systems (World-Wide

Web, WAIS, archie, WHOIS) and network services (Telnet, FTP).

Gopher is often a more convenient way to navigate in a FTP direc-

tory and to download files.

A Gopher server holds the information and handles the users'

queries. In addition, links to other Gopher servers create a net-

work wide cooperation to form the global Gopher web (Gopher-

space).

Who can use Gopher

Gopher uses the client-server model to provide access to the

Gopher web. You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the

Internet) in order to use a client on your computer to access

Gopher.

How to get to Gopher

Users explore the Gopher menus using various local clients or

accessing a remote client via an interactive Telnet session.

Local clients

Public domain clients for accessing a Gopher server are available

for: Macintosh, MS-DOS, OS/2, VM/CMS, VMS, NeXT, Unix,

X-Windows. The clients are available for anonymous FTP from

many FTP sites (eg, boombox.micro.umn.edu in the directory

/pub/gopher). See the list of freely available client software

in Appendix A.

Remote clients

Some sites allow public access to a client. To access such a

remote client, telnet to one of these sites:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| info.anu.edu.au Australia (login: info) |

| tolten.puc.cl Columbia |

| ecnet.ec Ecuador |

| gopher.chalmers.se Sweden |

| consultant.micro.umn.edu USA |

| gopher.uiuc.edu USA |

| panda.uiowa.edu USA (login: panda) |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

At the login: prompt type gopher (unless specified otherwise) and

the top-level Gopher menu for that site will be displayed.

Users are requested to use the site closest to them.

Using Gopher

The implementations of the Gopher clients on various platforms

are slightly different to take advantage of the platforms' capa-

bilities (mouse, graphic functions, X-Windows server) and to

offer the popular look and feel. Even with different implementa-

tions, the same set of functions and commands is available.

When issuing the gopher command, you will be connected automati-

cally to the default Gopher server specified at the installation.

The format of the command is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| gopher <hostname> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where hostname is an optional alternative Gopher server you want

to talk to.

When connected to a Gopher server, it is still possible to access

another server by exploring the Other Gopher servers in the rest

of the world branch. To locate them more easily, the Gopher ser-

vers are distributed in geographical regions:

* Africa

* Europe

* Middle East

* North America

* Pacific

* South America

and then by countries.

Access to a Gopher server is identical whether using a local or a

remote client: a simple menu-driven interface which doesn't

require any special training or knowledge from the user.

Here is a sample menu:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Internet Gopher Information Client v1.1

Information About Gopher

1. About Gopher.

2. Search Gopher News <?>

3. Gopher News Archive/

4. comp.infosystems.gopher (Usenet newsgroup)/

5. Gopher Software Distribution/

6. Gopher Protocol Information/

7. University of Minnesota Gopher software licensing policy.

8. Frequently Asked Questions about Gopher.

9. gopher93/

10. Gopher| example server/

11. How to get your information into Gopher.

--> 12. New Stuff in Gopher.

13. Reporting Problems or Feedback.

14. big Ann Arbor gopher conference picture.gif <Picture>

Press ? for Help, q to Quit, u to go up a menu Page: 1/1

-----------------------------------------------------------------

In the example above, any item can be selected by typing its line

number or by moving the cursor (-->) next to it.

An item could be:

* a subdirectory

* a text file

* a binary file

* a sound file

* an image file

* a phone book (directory information)

* an index-search

* a Telnet session

Items are displayed with an identifying symbol next to them. In

the example above, "<?>" means a full text index-search, "/"

means a subdirectory, "<Picture>" means an image file and no sym-

bol means a text file.

Some Gopher clients are not able to handle certain file types

(eg, sound files). Some clients display only files of types they

can handle or files they suppose you are interested in. Others

display all types of files.

Most Gopher clients allow you to create, view and select book-

marks. A bookmark keeps track of the exact location of a Gopher

item, regardless of where it resides. It is useful when you often

need to reach a file or a service located far from the top-level

directory. A collection of bookmarks is like a customized Gopher

menu.

Some capabilities of a local Gopher client are bound to the capa-

bilities of your own computer. In fact, for sound files, image

files and Telnet sessions, the Gopher client looks for the appro-

priate software on your computer and passes control to it to per-

form the requested task. When the task is completed, control is

returned to the Gopher client.

At any time, it is possible to terminate the session (quit com-

mand), to cancel the current processing or to get the on-line

help (help command).

An item is processed according to its type:

a subdirectory

its contents are displayed. To go up one level, use

the up command.

a text file the file is displayed. Then you can browse it,

search for a particular string, print it on a local

printer or copy (save) it onto your local disk space

in a user-specified file (the last 2 functions may

not be available to you).

a binary file

the remote file is simply copied onto your local

disk space in a user-specified file. Binary files

are binhexed Macintosh files, archives (.zip,

.tar,...), compressed files, programs, etc.

a sound file the remote file is played through your local audio

device if it exists, as well as the appropriate

utility. Only one sound file can be active at a

time; you will be warned if you try to play a sound

before a previous one is done.

an image file

the remote file is displayed on your computer screen

if an image viewer exists on your computer.

a phone book you are prompted for a search string to look up peo-

ple information through the selected phone book.

Since different institutions have different directo-

ry services, the queries are not performed in the

same fashion.

an index-search

you are prompted for a search string which may be

one or more words, plus the special operators and,

or, and not. The search is case-insensitive. Usual-

ly, an index is created to help users locate the

information in a set of documents quickly. Eg:

terminal and setting or tset

will find all documents which contain both the words

terminal and setting, or the word tset. or is non-

exclusive so the documents may contain all of the

words.

The result of the index-search looks like any Gopher

menu, but each menu item is a file that contains the

specified search string.

a Telnet session

Telnet sessions are normally text-based information

services, for example, access to library catalogs.

VERONICA

Veronica was designed as a solution to the problem of resource

discovery in the rapidly-expanding Gopher web, providing a key-

word search of more than 500 Gopher menus. Veronica helps you

find Gopher-based information without doing a menu-by-menu, site-

by-site search. It is to the Gopher information space, what

archie is to the FTP archives

Veronica is accessible from most top-level Gopher menus or from

the Other Gopher servers... branch. There is no need for opening

another connection or another application.

When you choose a veronica search , you will be prompted to enter

a keyword or keywords. The simplest way to search with veronica

is to enter a single word and hit the RETURN key. It does not

matter whether the word is upper-case or lower-case. The veronica

server will return a gopher menu composed of items whose titles

match your keyword specification. Items can be accessed as with

any Gopher menu. Eg:

eudora

will give you a list of menu titles that contain eudora, such as:

Electronic Mail: Eudora on Macintosh, Micro-08

Modem Setting Eudora Slip.

A UNIX-based Eudora reader for those that ...

Eudora: Popmail for the Macintosh.

Eudora.

etc.

The search string may contain keywords optionally separated by

and, or and not. If there is no operator between 2 keywords, and

is assumed. Eg:

eudora and macintosh

will give you a list of menu titles that contain both eudora and

macintosh, such as:

Eudora: Popmail for the Macintosh.

v4.1 EUDORA: E-MAIL FOR THE MACINTOSH.

Micro News: Eudora - A Mailer for the Macintosh.

Eudora: Electronic Mail on Your Macintosh.

ACS News - Eudora Mail Reader for Macintosh.

etc.

"*" is the wildcard character. It can replace any other character

or characters at the end of a keyword. Eg:

desk*

will give you a list of menu titles, such as:

The Help Desk.

Keene State College Press Release COMPUTER ON EVERY DESK.

DESKQview/X... An alternative to Windows???.

Ethernet at Your Desktop/

etc.

Learning more about Gopher

The Internet Gopher is developed by the Computer and Information

Services Department of the University of Minnesota. Bug reports,

comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to the Gopher devel-

opment team at: gopher@boombox.micro.umn.edu.

Mailing list: gopher-news@boombox.micro.umn.edu

To subscribe send a mail to:

gopher-news-request@boombox.micro.umn.edu

Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.gopher

A comprehensive description of veronica search methods is avail-

able from the veronica menus.

Veronica is being developed by Steve Foster and Fred Barrie at

the University of Nevada. Bug reports, comments, suggestions,

etc. should be addressed to: gophadm@futique.scs.unr.edu

WORLD-WIDE WEB

What is World-Wide Web

World-Wide Web (also called WWW or W3) is an information system

based on hypertext, which offers a means of moving from document

to document (usually called to navigate) within a network of

information.

Hypertext documents are linked to each other through a selected

set of words. For example, when a new word, or a new concept, is

introduced in a text, hypertext makes it possible to point to

another document which gives more details about it. The reader

can open the second document by selecting the unknown word or

concept and the relevant section is displayed. The second docu-

ment may also contain links to further details. The reader need

not know where the referenced document is, and there is no need

to type a command to display it, or to browse it to find the

right paragraph. Cross-references may be defined in the same doc-

ument. A collection of documents is a database.

If you were reading this document on a hypertext system, instead

of this all too short explanation about hypertext, you would have

a selectable pointer to a complete hypertext information web with

examples and more pointers to other definitions.

For instance, in the first document you might read:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

The WorldWideWeb (W3) is a wide-area "hypermedia" information

retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large

universe of documents.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Selecting hypermedia will display the following explanation for

you:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

WHAT IS HYPERTEXT

Hypertext is text which is not constraied to be linear.

Hypertext is text which contains "links" to other texts. The term

was coined by "Ted Nelson" around 1965 (see "History").

HyperMedia is a term used for hypertext which is not constrained

to be text: it can include graphics, video and "sound", for

example. Apparently Ted Nelson was the first to use this term too.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Then you can learn more about links and Nelson. Indeed, the

links in WWW are not confined to text only, so the term hyperme-

dia is more accurate. For example, the link to Nelson might point

to a file containing a picture of Ted Nelson. The picture would

be displayed on your screen if you have a suitable configuration.

Also, special documents (indexes) in the WWW information space

can be search for given keyword(s). The result is a document

which contains links to the documents found.

World-Wide Web uses hypertext over the network: the linked docu-

ments may be located at various sites. WWW can handle different

text formats and various information organizations. WWW also pro-

vides access to many of the other tools described in this guide.

Who can use World-Wide Web

WWW uses the client-server model to provide access to the infor-

mation universe. You must be on the international TCP/IP network

(the Internet) in order to use a client on your computer to

access WWW. If you are on the Internet, but don't have a WWW

client on your computer, you can still enter the World-Wide Web.

Several sites offer public interactive access to WWW clients (see

the Remote clients section under How to get to World-Wide Web

below).

If you have e-mail access only, or if you are not on the Internet

then you can not fully exploit the vast potential of WWW.

However, a mail-robot is available at the address:

listserv@info.cern.ch which gives e-mail access to WWW-accessible

listserv@info.cern.ch

files. (see E-mail access section under How to get to World-Wide

Web below).

How to get to World-Wide Web

Users access the World-Wide Web facilities via a client called a

browser. This interface provides transparent access to the WWW

servers. If a local WWW client is not available on your computer,

you may use a client at a remote site. Thus, an easy way to start

with WWW is to access a remote client.

Local clients

Usage of a local client is encouraged since it provides better

performance and better response time than a remote client.

Public domain clients for accessing WWW servers are available

for: Macintosh, MS-DOS, VMS, VM/CMS, MVS, NeXT, Unix, X-Windows.

The clients are available for anonymous FTP from info.cern.ch in

the directory /pub/www. All these platforms support a simple line

mode browser. In addition, graphical clients are available for:

Macintosh, Windows, X-Windows, NeXT and Unix. See the list of

freely available client software in Appendix A.

Remote clients

To access a remote WWW client, telnet to the client site. If you

are new to WWW, you should telnet to info.cern.ch No login is

needed. You will immediately enter the WWW line mode browser.

Some publicly accessible clients feature locally developed

clients. Most remote clients are at sites with WWW servers with

information on specific areas. After you telnet to the client

site, at the login:prompt enter www, no password is needed. The

following remote client sites are available:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Site Country Server Specialization

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| vms.huji.ac.il Israel Environment |

| info.cern.ch Switzerland (CERN) High-energy physics

| fatty.law.cornell.edu USA Law |

| ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu USA History |

| www.njit.edu USA |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

CERN is the entry point to find information about WWW itself and

to have an overview of the Web with a catalogue of the databases

sorted by subject.

E-mail access

In order to get a file, send mail to listserv@info.cern.ch with a

SEND command. The SEND command returns the document with the giv-

en WWW address, subject to certain restrictions. Hypertext docu-

ments are formatted to 72 character width, with links numbered. A

separate list at the end of the file gives the document-addresses

of the related documents.

If the document is hypertext, its links will be marked by numbers

in brackets, and a list of document addresses by number will be

appended to the message. In this way, you can navigate through

the web, more or less. A good file to start with would be:

http://info.cern.ch./hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview.html

Note that, despite the name listserv in the address of this mail

robot, it is not a LISTSERV server.

A note of caution from the WWW developers and maintainers:

As the robot gives potential mail access to a *vast* amount of

information, we must emphasise that the service should not be

abused. Examples of appropriate use would be:

* Accessing any information about W3 itself;

* Accessing any CERN and/or physics-related or network develop-

ment related information;

Examples of INappropriate use would be:

* Attempting to retrieve binaries or tar files or anything more

than directory listings or short ASCII files from FTP archive

sites;

* Reading Usenet newsgroups which your site doesn't receive;

* Repeated automatic use.

There is currently a 1000 line limit on any returned file. We

don't want to overload other people's mail relays or our server.

We reserve the right to withdraw the service at any time. We are

currently monitoring all use of the server, so your reading will

not initially enjoy privacy.

Enjoy!

The W3 team at CERN (www-bug@info.cern.ch)

Using World-Wide Web

When using a graphical interface, you access the WWW functions by

pressing mouse buttons. In particular, references are highlighted

or underlined words. To follow a link, click on the associated

reference.

The line mode browser is a more simple user interface: references

are numbers in square brackets next to words. Type the number and

hit the RETURN key to follow a reference. For example, here is

the beginning of the Subject Catalogue you get on the CERN ser-

ver:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Subject Catalogue

WWW VIRTUAL LIBRARY

This is the subject catalogue. See also arrangement by service

type[1]. Mail www-request@info.cern.ch to add pointers to this

list.

Aeronautics Mailing list archive index[2]. See also NASA LaRC[3]

Agriculture[4] Separate list, see also Almanac mail servers[5].

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Abstract Indexes[6] at NASA, Astrophysics work at

FNAL[7], Princeton's[8] Sloane Digital Sky

Survey, the STELAR project, Space Telescope

Electronic Information System[9], the Southampton

University Astronomy Group[10], the National

Solar Observatory[11], Astrophysics work at the

AHPCRC[12]. See also: space[13].

Bio Sciences[14] Separate list.

Computing[15] Separate list.

1-81, Back, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

The following commands are available within WWW. Some are disa-

bled when not applicable (eg, Find is enabled only when the cur-

rent document is an index). Angle brackets (<>) indicate an

optional parameter.

Help gives a list of available commands depending on

the context, and the hypertext address of the cur-

rent document.

Manual displays the on-line manual.

Quit exits WWW.

Up, Down scrolls up or down one page in the current docu-

ment.

Top, BOttom goes to the top or the bottom of the current docu-

ment.

Back goes back to the document you were reading before.

HOme goes back to the first document you were reading.

Next, Previous goes to the next or previous document in the list

of pointers from the document that led to the cur-

rent one.

List gives a numbered list of the links from the cur-

rent document. To follow a link, type in the num-

ber.

Recall <number>

if number is omitted, gives a numbered list of

the documents you have visited.

To display one specific document, re-issue the

command with number.

<Find> keyword queries the current index with the supplied key-

word(s). A list of matching entries is displayed

with possibly links to further details. Find can

Find

be omitted if the first keyword does not conflict

with another WWW command. Multiple keywords are

separated by blanks.

Go docaddress goes to the document represented by the given

hypertext address, which is interpreted relatively

to the current document.

Extra command available on Unix versions only:

Print prints the current document, without the numbered

document references. The default print command is

lpr, but it may be defined in your local working

environment by the variable WWW_PRINT_COMMAND.

To access WWW with the line mode browser, type: www. The default

first document will appear on your screen. From this point, you

should be able to navigate through the WWW universe by reading

the text and following the instructions at the bottom of the

screen. If you want to start with a first document other than the

default, or if you want to change some other aspect of the usual

interaction, there are a number of command line parameters and

options available. The full format of the www command to invoke

the line mode browser is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| www <options> <docaddress <keyword>> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

docaddress

is the hypertext address of the document at which you

want to start browsing.

keyword queries the index specified by docaddress with the sup-

plied keyword(s). A list of matching entries is dis-

played. Multiple keywords are separated by blanks.

Options are:

-n non-interactive mode. The document is formatted and

displayed to the screen. Pages are delimited with form

feed characters (FF).

-listrefs adds a list of the addresses of all documents referenc-

es to the end. Non-interactive mode only.

-pn sets the page length to n lines. Without a number,

makes the page length infinite. Default is 24.

-wn sets the page width to n columns. The default is 78, 79

or 80 depending on the system.

-na hides references in the text. Useful, when printing out

the document.

-version displays the version number of the software.

The commands listed above should be available in all clients.

They may be abbreviated (CAPITAL letters indicate acceptable

abbreviation). Case is not significant. Special characteristics

of the line mode browser interface are:

number type in a number given in [] and hit the RETURN key to

follow the link associated to the reference.

RETURN hit the RETURN key to display the next page of the cur-

rent document (without a reference number).

Examples

WWW gives you access to an information universe. Let's say you

want to know how many film versions of The Three Musketeers there

have been. You browse the WWW Subject Catalogue and select Mov-

ies:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Movie database browser (Cardiff)

A Hypertext movie database browser

Sep 2nd... Your help is needed..[1]

Aug 29th.. Images, sounds, mpegs & reviews[2]

Select the type of search you'd like to perform:-

Movie people[3].....(multi Oscar winners)[4] or

Movie titles[5] .....(multi Oscar winners)[6]

Searches the "rec.arts.movies" movie database system, maintained

by Col Needham et-al.

Here[7] is some information on list maintainers.

If you have a comment or suggestion, it can be recorded here[8]

HERE[9] is a pre-1986 movie information gopher server. (at

Manchester UK)

1-13, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: 5

-----------------------------------------------------------------

You select Movie titles, and then type three musketeers as key-

words:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Movie title queries

MOVIE TITLE QUERY

Enter a movie title or substring.

Example, to search for movies with the word "alien" in their

title, type "alien".

This will return details on several movies, including Aliens[1]

Note: if the title begins with A or The, leave it out. If you're

determined to include it, then put ', A' or ', The' at the end of

the of the substring e.g.

Enforcer, The

Gauntlet, The

Searching is case insensitive.

search menu[2] Fun and Games page[3] COMMA home page[4]

FIND <keywords>, 1-5, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more,

or Help: three musketeers

-----------------------------------------------------------------

You find that there have been six film versions of the story:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Movie Info

Here are the results from the search for "three musketeers"

Three Musketeers, The (1921)[1]

Three Musketeers, The (1933)[2]

Three Musketeers, The (1935)[3]

Three Musketeers, The (1939)[4]

Three Musketeers, The (1948)[5]

Three Musketeers, The (1974)[6]

search menu[7] Fun and Games page[8] COMMA home page[9]

Rob.H[10]

Robert.Hartill@cm.cf.ac.uk

FIND <keywords>, 1-10, Back, Up, Quit, or Help: 1

-----------------------------------------------------------------

You decide to look for more information on the 1921 version:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Movie Info

Here are the results from the search for "Three Musketeers, The (1921)"

THREE MUSKETEERS, THE (1921)

1921

Cast Belcher, Charles[1] ......Bernajoux

De Brulier, Nigel[2] ......Cardinal Richelieu

De La Motte, Marguerite[3] ......Constance Bonacieux

Fairbanks, Douglas[4] ......D'Artagnan

Irwin, Boyd[5] ......Comte de Rochefort

MacLaren, Mary[6] ......Queen Anne of Austria

Menjou, Adolphe[7] ......Louis XIII

Pallette, Eugene[8] ......Aramis

Poff, Lon[9] ......Father Joseph

Siegmann, George[10] ......Porthos

Stevens, Charles[11] ......Planchet

Directed by Niblo, Fred[12]

Music by Gottschalk, Louis F.[13]

1-21, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: 7

-----------------------------------------------------------------

You're hooked! You decide to look for more information on Adolphe

Menjou, search more titles, find Oscar winners, etc.

Learning more about World-Wide Web

World-Wide Web is being developed at CERN (European Particle

Physics Laboratory) by the World-Wide Web team leaded by Tim

Berners-Lee. Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be

mailed to: www-bug@info.cern.ch

On-line documentation is available from info.cern.ch, for anony-

info.cern.ch

mous FTP or using the remote WWW client.

Mailing lists: www-talk@info.cern.ch

To subscribe send a mail to www-talk-request@info.cern.ch

Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.www

Part 2

SEARCHING DATABASES

WAIS

What is WAIS

WAIS, Wide Area Information Server, is a distributed information

retrieval system. It helps users search databases over networks

using an easy-to-use interface. The databases (called sources)

are mostly collections of text-based documents, but they may also

contain sound, pictures or video as well. Databases on topics

ranging from Agriculture to Social Science can be searched with

WAIS.

The databases may be organized in different ways, using various

database systems, but the user isn't required to learn the query

languages of the different databases. WAIS uses natural language

queries to find relevant documents. The result of the query is a

set of documents which contain the words of the query: no seman-

tic information is extracted from the query.

Who can use WAIS

WAIS uses the client-server model to provide access to databases.

You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) in

order to use a client on your computer to access WAIS.

If you have e-mail access only, or if you are not on the Internet

you can still exploit some of the potential of WAIS. An e-mail

interface is available at the address: waismail@quake.think.com

which gives e-mail access to WAIS databases (see E-mail access

section under Using WAIS below).

How to get to WAIS

There are many WAIS servers throughout the network. A directory-

of-servers database is available at several sites. You can

address a query to it, eg, to find out what databases are avail-

able on a particular subject. This database is also available via

anonymous FTP from Think.com in the directory /wais as file wais-

sources.tar.Z.

If you do not have access to a WAIS client, (at least) two demon-

stration sites are available to allow you to get acquainted with

WAIS. You can telnet to:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| quake.think.com (login: wais) |

| sunsite.unc.edu (login: swais) |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

The two demonstration sites above run swais (Screen WAIS), a sim-

ple WAIS client for Unix.

Using WAIS

There are many freely available client software programs for var-

ious operating systems (Unix, VMS, MVS, MS-DOS, OS/2 and Macin-

tosh) and for specific environments (GNU Emacs, X-Windows, Open-

look, Sunview, NeXT, and MS-Windows). See the list of freely

available client software in Appendix A.

The client interface differs slightly on different platforms.

However, the queries are performed in the same way, whatever the

interface.

* Step 1: The user selects a set of databases to be searched

from among the available databases.

* Step 2: The user formulates a query by giving keywords to be

searched for.

* Step 3: When the query is run, WAIS asks for information from

each selected database.

* Step 4: Headlines of documents satisfying the query are dis-

played. The selected documents contain the requested words

and phrases. Selected documents are ranked according to the

number of matches.

* Step 5: To retrieve a document, the user simply selects it

from the resulting list.

* Step 6: If the response is incomplete, the user can state the

question differently or feed back to the system any one or

more of the selected documents he finds relevant.

* Step 7: When the search is run again, the results will be

updated to include documents which are similar to the ones

selected, meaning documents which share a large number of

common words.

E-mail access:

You can query WAIS databases and retrieve documents by sending

commands in the body part of an e-mail message to wais-

wais

mail@quake.think.com. The Subject: line is ignored. The impor-

tant commands are (a vertical bar (|) indicates a choice of

parameters):

help to get the help file

maxres number

to set the maximum number of results to be returned.

search source-name | "source-name1 source-name2 ..." keywords

where:

source-name

is a source name as found in the

directory-of-servers (with or without the

.src ending). Use double-quotes (") to

group several sources to be searched.

keywords are the words you would normally type into

a query.

You may specify several search requests in a mail

message. If you don't know what sources you can

search, just try anything. If the source name is not

recognised, you'll get a list of sources.

retrieve docid

to retrieve a document from a database. docid is a

DocID as returned by a search above. You may put

more than one retrieval request in a mail message,

but you must leave a blank line between requests.

The docid must be written exactly as returned by a

search request, including any spaces. You can

retrieve non-text documents as well as text. If the

document is of type TEXT or WSRC you will get the

result directly. Other types will be UUENCODED.

DocID: docid same as retrieve. This form is identical to the form

which is returned by a search request. It makes it

easy to use the reply mail function to retrieve

results.

Examples

When you log in to the demonstration site at quake.think.com, you

have immediate access to the directory-of-servers database via

the swais client software. To find recipes using papaya, you

would select the recipes database and give papaya as the keyword.

Here are the results of the search:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

# Score Source Title Lines

001: 1000 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Dawn's Muffins, Pt III 339

002: 1000 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Muffins 3 632

003: 1000 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Pineapple 678

004: 750 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Pork and Papaya Salad 33

005: 750 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Bread 681

006: 500 (recipes) roder@cco. Re: NONFAT BAKERY COLLECTION 423

007: 500 (recipes) shiva@hoss Re: Juice Recipes 65

008: 250 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Prawn Salad 49

009: 250 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: COLLECTION: Lots of Avoca 447

010: 250 (recipes) mecca@acsu Re: REQUEST: blender-made fru 29

011: 250 (recipes) Ann.Adamci Re: Re: REQUEST: blender-made 38

012: 250 (recipes) patth@Pani Re: Re: REQUEST: blender-made 49

013: 250 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Avocados 459

014: 250 (recipes) red_trek@d Re: VEGAN: red beans and rice 78

-----------------------------------------------------------------

You can then select any of the above documents for viewing, for

example, the Pork and Papaya Salad recipe:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Newsgroups: rec.food.recipes

From: arielle@taronga.com (Stephanie da Silva)

Subject: Pork and Papaya Salad

Message-ID: <5BBP2SB@taronga.com>

Date: Mon, 29 Mar 1993 06:51:47 GMT

Lines: 23

1/4 cup dried currants

1/2 cup balsamic vinegar

1/4 cup walnut oil

1/4 cup chicken broth

1 tablespoon honey

1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

1 pound cooked boneless pork loin roast

1 head Belgian endive

Bibb lettuce leaves

2 papayas, seeded, peeled and sliced lengthwise

2 avocados, seeded, peeled and sliced lengthwise

1/4 cup broken walnut pieces

In a small bowl pour enough boiling water over currants to cover.

Let stand 5 minutes; drain. For dressing, in a screw-top jar

combine vinegar, oil, chicken broth, honey, and cinnamon. Cover;

shake well. Trim fat from pork; slice thinly. Separate leaves of

Belgian endive. Line 6 salad plates with lettuce leaves. Arrange

pork, endive, papaya, and avocado on plates. Sprinkle with

currants and walnuts. Drizzle dressing over salads.

Stephanie da Silva arielle@taronga.com

-----------------------------------------------------------------

If you give more than one keyword, then all documents containing

any of the keywords will be listed.

Learning more about WAIS

A bibliography of documents, services and sources for WAIS is

maintained by Barbara Lincoln Brooks of WAIS Inc. The

bibliography is available from ftp.wais.com in the directory

/pub/wais-inc-doc along with many other WAIS documents.

There are currently four main FTP sites for WAIS documentation

and software:

* ftp.cnidr.org

* ftp.wais.com

* quake.think.com

* sunsite.unc.edu

For information on free WAIS software contact freewais@cnidr.org

Mailing list: wais-discussion@wais.com

To subscribe send a mail to wais-discussion-request@wais.com

Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.wais

WAIS was developed at Thinking Machines Corporation.

Part 3

FINDING NETWORK RESOURCES

ARCHIE

What is ARCHIE

Archie is an information system. It offers an electronic directo-

ry service for locating information in the international TCP/IP

network (the Internet).

The best known use of archie is for scanning a database of the

contents of more than 1000 anonymous FTP sites around the world.

Currently, this database contains more than 2,100,000 file names

from anonymous FTP sites. This database is known as the archie

database.

The files made available at anonymous FTP sites are software

packages for various systems (Windows, MS-DOS, Macintosh, Unix,

etc.), utilities, information or documentation files, mailing

list or Usenet group discussion archives. At most FTP sites, the

resources are organized hierarchically in directories and subdi-

rectories. The database tracks both the directory path and the

file names.

The archie database is automatically updated, thereby ensuring

that the information is accurate. Using this database, users can

easily find the the location of files they need without logging

onto several machines.

Who can use ARCHIE

Users on any network can access the archie database by electronic

mail. Other means of access are available to users on the Inter-

net (see the section Using ARCHIE below for details).

You are requested to respect a few basic rules when you request

information from an archie server:

* avoid connecting during working hours; most of the archie

servers are not dedicated machines, they have local functions

as well.

* make your queries as specific as possible; the response will

be quicker and shorter.

* user interfaces installed on your computer contribute to

reduce the load on the server sites, please use them.

* use the archie server closest to you and, in particularly,

don't overload the transatlantic lines.

How to get to ARCHIE

The archie database is maintained in the following locations:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Host Country Host |

Country

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| archie.au Australia archie.kr |

Korea

| archie.edvz.uni-linz.ac.at Austria archie.sogang.ac.kr|

Korea

| archie.univie.ac.at Austria archie.nz |

New Zealand

| archie.uqam.ca Canada archie.rediris.es |

Spain

| archie.funet.fi Finland archie.luth.se |

Sweden

| archie.th-darmstadt.de Germany archie.switch.ch |

Switzerland

| archie.doc.ic.ac.uk Great-Britain archie.ncu.edu.tw |

Taiwan

| archie.ac.il Israel archie.ans.net |

USA

| archie.unipi.it Italy archie.internic.net|

USA

| archie.kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp Japan archie.rutgers.edu |

USA

| archie.wide.ad.jp Japan archie.sura.net |

USA

| archie.unl.edu USA |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

There are three ways to access the archie database: via a local

client, interactive Telnet session or electronic mail. Each type

of access is described below in the Using ARCHIE section.

Using ARCHIE

The format of the parameters is given at the end of this section.

Angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional parameter; a vertical

bar (|) indicates a choice of parameters.

Note: A new version of the archie server (3.0) is now avail-

able. Some of the commands for interactive access and the e-mail

interface are slightly different from previous versions of the

server (2.11 and before). Command formats marked with a (+) are

valid in version 3.0 only, those marked with a (*) are acceptable

only in previous versions. To find out which version is installed

at the server you wish to use, issue the version command.

Using a local client:

Usage of these clients is encouraged since they provide quick and

easy non-interactive access to the archie servers, and thus, bet-

ter performance of the servers and better response time for the

user.

Public domain clients for accessing archie servers are available

for: Macintosh, MS-DOS, OS/2, VMS, NeXT, Unix and X-Windows.

The clients are available for anonymous FTP from the archie sites

in the directories /pub/archie/clients or /archie/clients. All

these platforms support a simple command line client. In

addition, a graphical interface (called xarchie) is available for

X-Windows.

Archie client command and parameters

When using a graphical interface, you access the archie functions

by pressing mousse buttons. The results are displayed with selec-

table fields for further explorations.

The basic archie client is a command with parameters that you

enter on your local machine. With most versions of the archie

client, if you type archie with no parameters, you will get a

list of the possible parameters and a short description of each.

The format of the command is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| archie <-options> string | pattern |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where the options are:

o specifies an output file name to store the results (not

available with all clients).

l lists the result one match per line. This form is suit-

able for parsing by programs.

t sorts the result inverted by date

m# specifies maximum number of matches to return (# within

the range 0 to 1000). The default value is 95.

h archie-server

specifies an archie server to send the query to; if

this parameter is not given, then the query will be

sent to the default archie server, if one is defined.

L lists known servers and current default server.

The following group of options determines the kind of search per-

formed on the database. They are mutually exclusive.

s a match occurs if the file/directory name contains

string. The search is case insensitive.

c as above, but the search is case sensitive.

e string must EXACTLY match (including case) the file/

directory name in the database. This is the

DEFAULT search method.

r searches the database using pattern. It contains spe-

cial characters which must be interpreted before per-

forming the search.

There may be some slight differences in the options available

with different clients on different platforms.

The result is a list of FTP site addresses with files or directo-

ries matching the argument, the size of the file, its last modi-

fication date and its directory. By default, the list is sorted

by host address. See the Examples section below for an example of

archie output.

Using Telnet:

To access an archie server interactively, telnet to one of the

existing servers (see the list of servers in the section How to

How to

get to ARCHIE above). At the login: prompt enter archie, the

login procedure ends leaving the user at a archie> prompt. The

server is ready for user requests. The following commands are

available:

exit, quit, bye

exits archie.

help <command-name>

invokes the on-line help. If issued with command-

name, the help request is restricted to the speci-

fied topic. Pressing the RETURN key exits from

the on-line help.

list <pattern>

provides a list of the sites in the database and

the time at which they were last updated. The

optional parameter limits the list to sites match-

ing pattern. The result is a list of site names,

sites IP address and date of the last update in

the database. The command list with no pattern

will list all sites in the database (more than

1000 sites!). Eg,

list \.de$

will list all German sites

site(*) site-name

lists the directories and, recursively, the subdi-

rectories, of site-name in the database. The

result may be very long.

whatis string searches the database of software package descrip-

tions for string. The search is case-insensitive.

prog string | pattern

find(+) string | pattern

searches the database for string or pattern which

represents the name of the resource to be found in

the database. Searches may be performed in a num-

ber of different ways specified in the variable

search (set command) which also decides the inter-

pretation of the parameter as string or pattern.

The result is a list of FTP site addresses with

matching entries, the size of the resource, its

last modification date and the directory to find

it. The number of hits is limited by the maxhits

variable (set command). The result of prog can be

sorted in different ways, depending on the value

of the sortby variable (set command). By default,

the variables search, maxhits and sortby are set

to, respectively, exact match search on string,

1000 hits and unsorted resulting list. Typing the

keyboard interrupt character during a search will

abort it. The results up to that time are dis-

played. See the Examples section below for an

example of the prog command and its results.

mail <email> <,email2...>

sends the result of the last command in a mail

message to the specified e-mail address(es). If

issued with no argument, the result is sent to the

address specified in the variable mailto (set com-

mand).

show <variable>

displays the value of the given variable name. If

issued with no argument, it displays all vari-

ables. See the set command below for the possible

variables.

set variable value

sets one of the archie's variables. Values of

these variables affect how archie interacts with

the user.

Variables and values are:

compress(+) compress-method

specifies the compression method (none or com-

press) to be used before mailing a result with the

mail command. The default is none.

encode(+) encode-method

specifies the encoding method (none or uuencode)

to be used before mailing a result with the mail

command. This variable is ignored if compress is

not set. The default is none.

mailto email <,email2 ...>

specifies the e-mail address(es) to mail the

result of the last command when mail is issued

with no arguments.

maxhits number

specifies the maximum number of matches prog will

generate (within the range 0 to 1000). The default

value is 1000.

search search-value

determines the kind of search performed on the

database by the command: prog string | pattern.

search-values are:

sub a partial and case insensitive search is

performed with string on the database, eg:

"is" will match "islington" and "this"

and "poison"

subcase

as above but the search is case sensitive,

eg:

"TeX" will match "LaTeX" but not

"Latex"

exact the parameter of prog (string) must EXACTLY

match (including case) the string in the

database. The fastest search method of all,

and the default.

regex pattern is interpreted before performing a

search on the database.

sortby sort-value

describes how to sort the result of prog.

sort-values are:

hostname on the FTP site address in lexical

order.

time by the modification date, most

recent first.

size by the size of the found files or

directories, largest first.

filename on file or directory name in lexi-

cal order.

none unsorted (default)

The reverse sorting orders from those

described here are obtained by prepending r

to the sortby value given. (eg, reverse

hostname order hostname is rhostname).

term terminal-type <number-of-rows <number-of-

columns>>

tells the archie server what type of termi-

nal you are using, and optionally its size

in rows and columns, eg:

set term xterm 24 100

Using electronic mail:

Users limited to electronic mail connectivity can access the

archie servers by sending mail to the domain address of one of

the servers listed in the section How to get to ARCHIE (eg,

archie@archie.ac.il). The commands are sent in the body part of

the mail.

The electronic mail interface to an archie server recognizes a

subset of the commands described in Using Telnet. Most useful

commands and particularities to the e-mail interface are

described below. If an empty message, or a message containing no

valid requests is received, it will be considered to be a help

request.

Command lines begin in the first column. All lines that do not

match a valid command are ignored. The Subject: line is processed

as if it were part of the message body.

help sends you the help file. The help command is exclusive,

ie, other commands in the same message are ignored.

path return-address

set mailto(+) return-address

specifies a return e-mail address different from that

which is extracted from the message header. If you do

not receive a reply from the archie server within sev-

eral hours, you might need to add a path command to

your message request.

list pattern <pattern2 ...>

provides a list of the sites in the database that match

pattern and the time at which they were last updated.

The result is a list with site names, sites IP address

and date of the last update in the database.

site(*) site-name

lists the directories and, recursively, the subdirecto-

ries, of site-name in the database.

whatis string <string2 ...>

searches the database of software packages descriptions

for each string. The search is case insensitive.

prog pattern <pattern2 ...>

find(+) pattern <pattern2>

searches the database for each interpretation of pat-

tern which represents the name of a resource to be

found in the database. If multiple patterns are placed

on one line, in that case, the results will be mailed

back in one message. If multiple prog lines appear,

then multiple messages will be returned, one for each

prog line. Results are sorted by FTP site address in

prog

lexical order. If pattern contains spaces, it must be

quoted with single (') or double (") quotes. The search

is case insensitive.

compress(*)

causes the result of the current request to be com-

pressed and uuencoded. When you receive the reply, you

should run it through uudecode. This will produce a .Z

file. You can then run uncompress on this file and get

the result of your request

set compress(+) compress-method

specifies the compression method (none or compress) to

be used before mailing the result of the current

request. The default is none.

set encode(+) encode-method

specifies the encoding method (none or uuencode) to be

used before mailing the result of the current request.

This variable is ignored if compress is not set. The

default is none.

Note: set compress compress and set encode uuencode

would produce the same result as the former compress

command.

quit nothing past this point is interpreted. Useful when a

signature is automatically appended at the end of your

mail messages.

Description of pattern

A pattern describes a character string including characters which

take a special meaning. The special meaning is lost when "\" is

put before the character. The special characters are:

. (period) this is the wildcard character that

replaces any other character, eg, "...." will match any

4 character string.

<circ> (caret) if "<circ>" appears at the beginning of the

pattern, then the searched string must start with the

substring following the "<circ>". If it occurs anywhere

else in the pattern it is regarded as non-special, eg:

"<circ>efghi" will match "efghi" or "efghijlk" but

not "abcefghi"

$ (dollar) if "$" appears at the end of the pattern, then

the searched string must end with the substring preced-

ing the "$". If occurring anywhere else in the pattern,

it is regarded as non-special, eg:

"efghi$" will match "efghi" or "abcdefghi" but not

"efghijkl"

Examples

If you are using an archie client, and enter the command:

archie -s eudora

or if you send, by e-mail or during a Telnet session, the com-

mand:

prog eudora

or

find eudora

then archie will send you the following results:

Host ftp.ascii.co.jp (133.152.1.1)

Last updated 03:38 8 Aug 1993

Location: /pub/MAC

DIRECTORY drwxrwxr-x 2048 bytes 00:00 6 May 1992 eudora

Host ftp.ascii.co.jp (133.152.1.1)

Last updated 03:38 8 Aug 1993

Location: /pub/MAC/eudora

FILE -r--r--r-- 281139 bytes 00:00 21 Oct 1991 eudo-

ra1.2.2.sit.hqx

Host ftp.ci.ua.pt (192.80.21.201)

Last updated 04:53 9 Aug 1993

Location: /pub/NetNews/comp.binaries.mac

FILE -rw-r--r-- 438 bytes 12:04 10 Jul 1993 Eudora1.3.readme

Host ftp.ci.ua.pt (192.80.21.201)

Last updated 04:53 9 Aug 1993

Location: /pub/NetNews/comp.binaries.mac

FILE -rw-r--r-- 278912 bytes 12:04 10 Jul 1993 Eudo-

ra1.3.sit.bin

etc.

If you send the command list \.de$ by e-mail or in a Telnet ses-

sion, then you will get the following results:

alice.fmi.uni-passau.de 132.231.1.180 12:31 8 Aug 1993

askhp.ask.uni-karlsruhe.de 129.13.200.33 12:25 8 Aug 1993

athene.uni-paderborn.de 131.234.2.32 15:21 6 Aug 1993

bseis.eis.cs.tu-bs.de 134.169.33.1 00:18 31 Jul 1993

clio.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de 134.99.128.3 12:10 8 Aug 1993

cns.wtza-berlin.de 141.16.244.4 16:08 31 Jul 1993

etc.

If you send the command whatis compression by e-mail or in a Tel-

net session, then you will get the following results:

RFC 468 Braden, R.T. FTP data compression 1973 March 8; 5p.

arc PC compression program

deltac Image compression using delta modulation

spl Splay tree compression routines

squeeze A file compression program

uncrunch Uncompression program

unsqueeze Uncompression programs

Learning more about ARCHIE

However you communicate with the archie server, on-line help is

available.

If you have any questions about archie, write to the Archie

Group, Bunyip Information Systems Inc. at info@bunyip.com.

Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to

archie-group@bunyip.com. In addition, the database administrator

at a particular archie server can be contacted at

archie-admin@address.of.archie.server, eg:

archie-admin@archie.ac.il.

Mailing list: archie-people@bunyip.com

To subscribe send a mail to: archie-people-request@bunyip.com

Archie was developed by Alan Emtage, Peter Deutsch, and Bill Hee-

lan from the McGill University Computing Center, Canada. Now

archie is supported by Bunyip Information System Inc., Canada.

Part 4

FINDING PEOPLE AND COMPUTERS

WHOIS

What is WHOIS

WHOIS provides directory service to network users. This service

is a way of finding e-mail addresses, postal addresses and tele-

phone numbers. It may also deliver information about networks,

networking organizations, domains and sites.

The main database of networking-related names (organizations,

sites, networks, people, etc.) is maintained by the Internet Reg-

istration Service (InterNIC). Actually, the names of the adminis-

trative and technical contacts for registered domains are auto-

matically entered into the database when domain or IP number

applications are processed by the Internet coordination authori-

ty. Each entry of the database has a handle (a unique identifi-

er), a name, a record type, and various other fields depending on

the type of record. This database will be used as an example in

the descriptions below.

Before April 1, 1993, the Network Information Center (NIC) of the

Defense Data Network (DDN) was the Internet coordination authori-

ty and, therefore, maintained the database (known as the NIC

database). The NIC database is now restricted to information

about the .mil domain. Many documents still refer to these names.

Many academic sites maintain their own database to offer informa-

tion about their staff members and students.

In its current implementation, WHOIS has some limitations which

prevent it from becoming an efficient directory service for a

large volume of information and numerous requests: the various

WHOIS servers have no knowledge of each other, a database is

maintained at each server site, and, finally, new functionalities

have been implemented locally at various sites and not propagat-

ed. A new extended protocol, WHOIS++, is being specified to

improve the current service. WHOIS++ will include local enhance-

ments to the WHOIS service, an improved query syntax and its

architecture will allow a real distributed directory service for

the entire Internet.

This new protocol for directory services will be made available

shortly.

Who can use WHOIS

WHOIS is available to users on the international TCP/IP network

(the Internet).

A WHOIS server is accessible across the network from a user pro-

gram running on local machines or via an interactive Telnet ses-

sion to the site which hosts the server.

In addition, the InterNIC offers an electronic mail interface to

the database it maintains, allowing users not on the Internet or

users with electronic mail only to access this information. This

type of access is described below in the Using WHOIS section.

In general, WHOIS servers should only be used for isolated quer-

ies about specific information. Typically, it is not acceptable

to make an extended series of queries to obtain large sections of

the directory. Such a strategy is unfair both because of exces-

sive consumption of server resources, and because the directory

information belongs to individuals. In particular, extracting

lists of people for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited.

How to get to WHOIS

There are many WHOIS servers throughout the network and a com-

prehensive list would be too long to be included here. A

WHOIS server offers information about the organization to which

it belongs: it doesn't share a common directory with other

WHOIS servers and doesn't know either where to find information

about other institutions.

Using WHOIS

WHOIS has become the familiar name of the user program for

accessing a WHOIS database, although NICNAME is the original

name.

In the following, angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional param-

eter.

Using a local client:

Unix computers have a native whois command. On non-Unix machines,

ask your system administrator whether your computer has it or

not. This command searches the database on the specified site for

entry which contains identifier. The format is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| whois <-h site-name> identifier |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

site-name is the domain address of the site which hosts the data-

base you want to query (eg, whois.internic.net). On

some installations, the default value is still set to

the old NIC database site (nic.ddn.mil).

identifier

is a name (person, host, domain or network), an IP num-

ber or a handle.

Special characters may be used in identifier to specify the

search:

. before identifier will cause a name-only search.

! before identifier will cause a handle-only search.

... or . after identifier will cause a partial search: every-

thing starting with identifier will match.

@ in identifier will cause a search on the e-mail

addresses.

* before identifier will return the entire membership

list of the entry that matches identifier (eg, a site

and its registered users).

% before identifier will return only the membership list

of the entry that matches identifier (eg, the regis-

tered users of a site).

The special characters may be used together.

The results are displayed in one of 2 ways:

* a full detailed display for a single match,

* a list of summary lines for multiple matches.

In both cases, the handle is shown in parentheses after the name.

Using Telnet:

To access the InterNIC database interactively, telnet to the

InterNIC site (whois.internic.net). No login is required.

Other WHOIS databases may have a Telnet access and offer most of

the functions below (eg, whois.ripe.net which hosts the WHOIS

database of the European IP Networks).

In the following, CAPITAL letters indicate acceptable abbrevia-

tion; angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional parameter.

WHOIS invokes the information retrieval program.

? displays a short on-line help.

?

HElp accesses the full on-line help.

Q, QUIT, RETURN key

exits WHOIS

<keyword> identifier

searches the database for an entry which contains

identifier. The default action is to do a broad

search, looking for matches in many fields: handle,

name, nicknames, hostname, IP number, etc, and find-

ing all record types. keyword may be used to narrow

the search to a specific record type.

keyword may be one of:

PErson limits the search to persons.

DOmain limits the search to domains (eg, DO EARN.NET).

HOst limits the search to hosts (eg, HO PRINCETON).

NEtwork limits the search to networks (eg, NE EBONE).

Organization limits the search to organizations (eg, O CREN).

NAme same as leading '.' in identifier.

HAndle same as '!' in identifier.

PArtial same as trailing '.' in identifier.

Mailbox same as '@' in identifier.

EXPand same as '*' in identifier.

SUBdisplay same as '%' in identifier.

Full or '=' shows detailed display for each match.

SUMmary or '$'

shows summary always, even if just one match.

Special characters may be used in identifier to specify the

search:

. before identifier will cause a name-only search.

! before identifier will cause a handle-only search.

... or . after identifier will cause a partial search:

everything starting with identifier will match.

@ in identifier will cause a search on the e-mail

addresses.

* before identifier will return the entire membership

list of the entry that match identifier (eg, a site

and its registered users).

% before identifier will return only the membership

list of the entry that matches identifier (eg, the

registered users of a site).

~ before identifier will return the entry that matches

identifier only, no membership list.

The special characters may be used together. Except if Full or

SUMmary are specified, the results are displayed in one of 2

ways:

* a full detailed display for a single match,

* a list of summary lines for multiple matches.

In all cases, the handle is shown in parenthesis after the name.

Using electronic mail:

Users limited to electronic mail connectivity can send requests

to the database maintained at the InterNIC by sending mail to

mailserv@internic.net. The commands are sent in the Subject:

field. The body part of the mail is ignored except if the Sub-

ject: line is empty. In that case, only the first line is

interpreted.

This electronic mail interface recognizes all commands described

in Using Telnet. Requests should be prefixed with the word WHOIS.

Requests are processed automatically once a day.

Examples

If you are using a local client, and enter the command:

whois \!EARN... (remark: "\" is an escape character)

or if you send by e-mail the command:

whois !EARN...

then you will get the following results:

EARN (EARN-HST) SEINE.EARN.NET 193.52.216.1

European Academic Research Network (EARN-DOM) EARN.NET

To obtain detailed information on the second item, enter or send

the command:

whois EARN-DOM

then you will get the following result:

European Academic Research Network (EARN-DOM)

EARN Office

CIRCE BP 167

91403 ORSAY CEDEX, France

Domain Name: EARN.NET

Administrative Contact:

Bovio, Daniele (DB355) hi@FRORS12.CIRCE.FR

+33 1 6982 3973

Technical Contact, Zone Contact:

Grange, Nadine (NG4) grange@FRORS12.CIRCE.FR

+33 1 69823973 (FAX) +33 1 69285273

Record last updated on 19-Aug-93.

Domain servers in listed order:

SEINE.EARN.NET 193.52.216.1

LUMIERE.CIRCE.FR 130.84.8.14

For a partial search, enter:

whois hi@f...

then you will get the following result:

Bovio, Daniele (DB355) hi@FRORS12.CIRCE.FR

EARN

EARN Office

CIRCE BP 167

91403 ORSAY CEDEX, France

+33 1 6982 3973

Record last updated on 23-Oct-92.

Learning more about WHOIS

The WHOIS service is documented in an Internet Request For Com-

ments (RFC 1400).

If you have any questions about WHOIS write to

action@internic.net.

Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to

action@internic.net.

X.500

What is X.500

X.500 is an OSI (Open System Information) based directory servi-

ces protocol designed by the CCITT (International Telegraph and

Telephone Consultative Committee).

X.500 provides distributed directory services to network users.

The X.500 directory specifies a model for connecting directory

services to form one distributed global directory. Each directory

service holds a part of the global database and the directory

information is made available via a server (called a Directory

System Agent - DSA). The database is maintained locally. From the

user point of view, the entire directory is accessible from the

local server.

While most of the information available today via X.500 is about

people and organizations, the design of the X.500 directory is

also suitable for storing information about other entities (or

objects), such as network resources, applications or hardware.

Several projects are underway which utilise these directory capa-

bilities (eg, the Internet RFCs (Request For Comments) are listed

in the global directory).

Each item (entry) in the X.500 directory describes one object

(eg, a person, a network resource, an organization) and has a

Distinguished Name - DN (a unique identifier). It consists of a

collection of attributes (eg, last name, organization name,

e-mail,...- for a person). The information held in the X.500

directory (or Directory Information Base - DIB) is arranged hier-

archically. This organization is called the Directory Information

Tree (DIT). At the top-level is the root entry (the World), then

the country level, then the organization level, and, eventually,

the people, the resources, etc., at the bottom-level of the hier-

archy.

Who can use X.500

Although X.500 is part of the OSI standard definition, OSI access

is not necessary to use the directory services. Many X.500 servi-

ces are available on the Internet. In addition, users on any net-

work can access the X.500 directory by electronic mail. See the

section Using X.500 below for details.

How to get to X.500

There are three ways to access the X.500 services: via a local

client, interactive session (Telnet or X.25 access) or electronic

mail. Each type of access is described below in the Using X.500

section.

In addition, other network tools (eg, WWW and Gopher) provide

access to X.500 directory services through gateways.

Accessing a remote client is an easy way to start querying the

X.500 directory. Some sites allow public access via Telnet or

X.25 to a client. Public access user interfaces are available at:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Telnet (login) Public X.25 (login) Country |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| jethro.ucc.su.oz.au (fred) Australia |

| elem4.vub.ac.be (dua) 222100611 Belgium |

| login.dkuug.dk (ds) Denmark |

| nic.funet.fi (dua) Finland |

| 20800603053201 France |

| (login: dua, password: ucom.x) France |

| 26245050230303 Germany |

| ashe.cs.tcd.ie (de) Ireland |

| jolly.nis.garr.it (de or fred) 22225010083212 Italy |

| zoek.nic.surfnet.nl (zoek) Netherlands|

| elc1.mat.torun.edu.pl (de or dish) Poland |

| chico.rediris.es (directorio) 2142160234013 Spain |

| hypatia.umdc.umu.se (de) 240374810306 Sweden |

| nic.switch.ch (dua) 22847971014540 Switzerland|

| paradise.ulcc.ac.uk (dua) 23421920014853 Paradise |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Paradise is a European project to encourage the use of X.500 in

European countries.

To connect to one of these sites, select an access method (Telnet

or X.25) and at the login: prompt type the specified login, if

required.

Using X.500

X.500 supports data management functions (addition, modification

and deletion of entries) and powerful lookup capabilities. The

use of X.500 is primarily for its lookup capabilities, ie, query-

ing a database for information on a person (postal address, tele-

phone number, e-mail address, etc.). The basic fields for search-

ing are the person's name, the name of the person's organization

(and department within the organization) and the country.

In the following, angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional param-

eter; a vertical (|) indicates a choice of parameters.

Using a local client:

In the X.500 world, a local client is called a Directory User

Agent (DUA) Public domain and commercial DUAs are available for

numerous platforms ranging from mainframes to personal computers.

For a comprehensive list of DUAs, their description and where to

find them, consult the Internet document RFC 1292 - A Catalog of

Available X.500 Implementations.

Available DUAs range from simple line commands to sophisticated

graphical user interfaces which require a pointing device.

Using Telnet or X.25:

3 categories of user interfaces might be available at the remote

site:

* line-oriented: de, dish, fred

* menu-driven: sd (formerly known as widget)

* X-Windows-based: Xdi, Xlookup (or xlu), pod

Capabilities of these DUAs range from basic search facilities to

full X.500 functionality.

de (directory enquiries) is recommended for novice users since it

is a very simple user-interface. It has been designed to run as a

public access DUA and is accessible from any kind of terminal. It

supports the basic X.500 functions: read, search, list. The Sim-

ple query mode is suitable for those who are new to querying the

X.500 directory.

de invokes the X.500 interrogation user-interface.

q exits de.

?<topic> displays the on-line help on the specified topic or

general help.

<circ>C (Ctrl-C) is the interrupt character. It aborts a search

in progress or resets the current query specification.

* (asterisk) will list all entries of the specified

field. It is also the wildcard character and can

replace any other character in a name. It can appears

anywhere in the name, eg: smit* or *smit* are valid

string formats.

- resets the default value to a blank string.

When de is invoked, the user is requested to fill in 4 fields to

specify a request. In all fields, the value from the previous

request is the default value. Press the RETURN key to accept it,

or enter a new value. All searches are case insensitive.

The four fields to be filled in are:

Person's name

Wildcard characters may be used anywhere in the name.

All matching names will be listed. Typing only "*" will

match all people of the specified department or organi-

sation. If this field is blank, the search will be on

department or organization only.

Department name

the name (or an acronym) of the department in the

organization where the person works. Wildcard charac-

ters may be used anywhere in the name. Typing only "*"

will match all departments. If no person's name has

been entered, details on the department are displayed,

otherwise, the search is carried out with the selected

name. If no department name is given, all departments

will be searched. This field could be omitted in small

organizations.

Organization name

the name (or an acronym) of the organization where the

person works. Wildcard characters may be used anywhere

in the name. Typing only "*" will match all organiza-

tions. If no person's name or department name has been

entered, details on the organization are displayed,

otherwise, the search is carried out with the selected

name.

Country name

the name of the country where the person works. Typing

"*" will list all countries. The country name could be

the 2-letter country code (eg, DK stands for Denmark),

the name or a part of it without wildcards (eg, nether

instead of The Netherlands).

If a large number of matching entries are found, they are listed

so that the user can select one entry to get further details.

Using electronic mail:

The Norwegian networking organization (UNINETT) offers an e-mail

interface to X.500. To use it, send a mail message to: Directo-

Directo

ry@UNINETT.NO with the word find in the Subject: field. The body

part contains the search request, one per message.

The format of the search request is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| find <person-name> <: org-name <; country-name>> | |

| <; country-name> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

If org-name and country-name are omitted, the sender's organiza-

tion name and country name are used as default values. The mail

interface guesses these values from the From: field of your mail,

so the results can be surprising if your address ends with .bit-

net!

"*" (asterisk) is the wildcard character and can replace any oth-

er characters in any name. It can appear anywhere in the name.

The result of the query is sent back in a mail message. The

search is case insensitive.

Note: To avoid overloading the directory service, users are

not allowed to search for a person without selecting an organisa-

tion. To receive a help file, send the word help instead of a

find command.

Examples

Using de, you can search for the Anthropoloy department of the

University College of London in United Kingdom, with the follow-

ing request:

Person's name, q to quit, * to browse, ? for help

:-

Department name, * to browse, ? for help

:- a*

Organisation name, * to browse, ? for help

:- ucl

Country name, * to browse, ? for help

:- uk

A few entries match the selected department, all are listed for

further selection:

United Kingdom

University College London

Got the following matches. Please select one from the list

by typing the number corresponding to the entry you want.

United Kingdom

University College London

1 A.U.T. Office

2 American Institute for Foreign Study

3 Anatomy and Developmental Biology

4 Anthropology

5 Audio Visual Centre

Department name, * to browse, ? for help

:- 4

United Kingdom

University College London

Anthropology

Telephone Number +44 71-387-7050 x2455

fax +44 71 380 7728

If you are looking for Erik Lawaetz from UNI-C in Denmark, you

can enter the following request (default values come from a pre-

vious request):

Person's name, q to quit, * to browse, ? for help

:- law*

Department name, * to browse, <CR> to search all depts, ?

for help

:-

Organisation name, * to browse, ? for help

:- uni-c

Country name, * to browse, ? for help

:- dk

One entry matches the selected criteria, details are displayed:

Denmark

UNI-C

Erik Lawaetz

postalAddress UNI-C

DTH

Bygning 305

DK-2800 Lyngby

Telephone Number +45 45 93 83 55

+45 42 88 39 99 x2018

fax +45 45 93 02 20

electronic mail Erik.Lawaetz@uni-c.dk

If you send mail to Directory@UNINETT.NO with the request:

find geir ped* : *oslo ; no

you'll get the following result:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

This message is in response to your request to the directory to

find

geir ped* : *oslo ; no

This is interpreted as a request to find a person with a name

matching "geir ped*" in an organisation with name matching

"*oslo" in a country with a name matching "no".

There were 8 organisations with a name matching the

organizational name you specified. Within those organisations

there were 7 persons that had a name matching the personal name

you specified. Directory information for the located persons is

shown below.

Geir Pedersen : Universitetet i Oslo ; Norway

Alternate Geir Kenneth Pedersen

Alternate Geir K. Pedersen

E-Mail (RFC) Geir.Pedersen@usit.uio.no

E-Mail (X.400) /G=geir/S=pedersen/OU=usit/O=uio/PRMD=uninett/

ADMD= /C=no/

Postal Address Postboks 1059 - Blindern

0316 Oslo 3

NORWAY

Phone +47-22-852478

Phone +47-22-852470 (front-office)

Fax-phone +47-22-852730

Description Project leader for UNINETTs X.500 projects

User ID geirp

Favorite Drink Farris

Street Address Gaustadalleen 23

Home Address Gaustadveien 17A

0372 Oslo 3

NORWAY

See also Geir Pedersen : UNINETT ; Norway

Entry updated Tue Jun 15 11:51:31 1993

-----------------------------------------------------------------

and 6 other entries.

Learning more about X.500

Several Internet RFC documents deal with X.500:

RFC 1292 A Catalog of Available X.500 Implementations.

RFC 1308 Executive Introduction to Directory Services Using the

X.500 Protocol,

RFC 1309 Technical Overview of Directory Services Using the

X.500 Protocol,

The official source of information on X.500 is the X.500 recom-

mendation published by the CCITT (Blue Book, Volume VIII - Fasci-

cle VIII.8, Data Communication Networks Directory, Recommenda-

tions X.500-X.521, CCITT, 1988, ISBN 92-61-03731-3). This

document is also available electronically: send the command GET

ITU-5233 to itudoc@itu.ch. This is not intended for the casual

user!

NETFIND

What is NETFIND

NETFIND is an Internet user directory tool. It provides a simple

Internet white pages directory facility.

Given the name of a person on the Internet and a rough descrip-

tion of where the person works, Netfind attempts to locate tele-

phone and electronic mailbox information about the person. It

does so using a seed database of domains and hosts in the net-

work.

Netfind finds information about people through the Internet pro-

tocols SMTP and finger. If the person being sought is at a site

that is not directly connected to the Internet (e.g., the site is

connected only through a mail forwarding gateway), Netfind

informs the user that the person can not be found.

Due to the dynamic nature of Netfind's search procedures and var-

iations in Internet availability, different results can be

obtained for the same search on different occasions.

The Netfind software can only run on Suns running SunOS 4.0 or

more recent.

Who can use NETFIND

You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) in

order to use Netfind. Moreover, Netfind can only find information

on users who are on the Internet.

There is no e-mail access to Netfind.

How to get to NETFIND

You can access Netfind through software at your site (local

access), or you can use Telnet to access it at one of the follow-

ing hosts (remote access):

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Host Country Host Country

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| archie.au Australia bruno.cs.colorado.edu USA |

| dino.conicit.ve Venezuela ds.internic.ne USA |

| lincoln.technet.sg Singapore macs.ee.mcgill.ca Canada

| malloco.ing.puc.cl Chile monolith.cc.ic.ac.uk England

| mudhoney.micro.umn.edu USA netfind.oc.com USA |

| netfind.vslib.cz Czech Rep. nic.nm.k Korea|

| nic.uakom.sk Slovakia redmont.cis.uab.edu USA |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Using NETFIND

To use Netfind, you give it the name of a person and keywords

indicating where that person works. After you specify a search,

Netfind looks in its seed database to find domains matching the

specified keywords. If there is more than one matching domain,

Netfind displays the list of matching domains, and asks you to

select up to three to search. If the keys you specified match

more than 100 domains, Netfind will list some of the matching

domains/organizations and ask you to form a more specific search.

You can use any of the parts of an organization's name (or any of

the components of its domain name) as keys in searches. Using

more than one key implies the logical AND of the keys. Specifying

too many keys may cause searches to fail.

When it completes the search (or when interrupted by <circ>C),

Netfind summarizes the search results. The summary includes prob-

lems searching remote domains, information about the most promis-

ing email address for the person being sought (if available), and

information about when and where the person most recently/is cur-

rently logged in (if available). If more than one person is

located by a search, the summary does not include information

about email targets and most recent/current logins (since only

the user can decide which person was the correct one.)

Local access:

The format of the Netfind command is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| netfind <options> name-keyword place-keywords |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where the options are:

-h tells Netfind to skip the domain search phase, and

immediately begin searching individual machines found

in the seed database. This option exists for measure-

ment purposes. It is not of much use to casual users.

-s will disable usage of the SMTP protocol during search-

es. This option is mainly useful for measurement pur-

poses. Without this protocol, searches will begin pro-

ducing finger output slightly sooner, but will often

search less useful machines, generate more Internet

load, and fail to find information for users at sites

that do not support finger (such as many companies).

-t will report how many timeouts occurred. The -T option

will set the timeout interval to the specified number

of seconds. It may be necessary to use this option to

increase the timeout value for intercontinental search-

es.

-D sets the maximum number of domains that Netfind will

search at once. The default is 3. While it may seem

convenient to set a high value for this number, we sug-

gest you do not do this. The search will actually pro-

ceed faster (and waste less Internet bandwidth) if a

small number of well chosen domains are searched.

-H sets the maximum number of machines that will be

searched by Netfind. The default value is 50. Again,

we suggest that you do not set this value higher.

-m displays measurement information. If no filename

is specified, measurements are output to stderr. The

packet count estimates are usually exaggerated, because

they make pessimistic assumptions about the state of

the Domain Naming System.

-d allows you to turn on various classes of debugging out-

put (all of which are output to stderr), using a letter

corresponding to each one. Debugging output is enabled

using the -d option with a list of letters, eg, -dslf.

The following classes/letters exist:

c: display control messages (check if the pro-

gram has reached a specified point)

f: display finger related messages

h: list machine names found in the seed database

l: display lock related messages (when entering

monitors)

m: display messages about mail protocol (SMTP)

n: display messages about network failures

r: display hosts matched from the seed database

that were rejected from searches because of

search scope selection

s: display system call related messages

t: display thread related messages

A: convert the above flags to mean their comple-

ment (example -dAt means produce all debug

output except that for threads).

The letters that are most likely to be of interest to the casual

user are f, m, and n. By default, these options are enabled.

Specifying any of these three flags with -d on the command line

will disable them (hence, the -d option toggles the default

behavior of each of the flags).

The name keyword specifies the person being sought by first,

last, or login name (only one name can be specified).

The place keywords describe where the person works, by either the

name of the institution or the city/state/country. If you know

the institution's domain name (e.g., cs.colorado.edu, where there

are host names like brazil.cs.colorado.edu) you can specify it as

keys without the dots (eg, cs colorado edu). The host parts of

domain names (brazil) cannot be used as keywords. Keys are case

insensitive and may be specified in any order, although using a

very common key (like university) first will cause internal buff-

ers to overflow and some domains to be missed.

Using more than one key implies the logical and of the keys.

Specifying too many keys may cause searches to fail. If this hap-

pens, try specifying fewer keys.

Remote access:

Telnet to one of the remote Netfind sites (see How to get to

NETFIND, above) and log in as netfind. No password is necessary.

You will get the following menu:

Top level choices:

1. Help

2. Search

3. Seed database lookup

4. Options

5. Quit (exit server)

If you select Search, you will be given an opportunity to enter a

name keyword and place keywords.

Examples

To find the address of e-mail address of Nadine Grange, who works

at the EARN office at CIRCE in France, you could try the key-

words:

nadine circe france

Since there are more than three domains that fit the place key-

words, you are asked to pick a few. The search proceeds, using

the domains of your choice:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Please select at most 3 of the following domains to search:

0. circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, orsay ce

1. ciripa.circe.fr (centre inter-regional de calcul electronique, c

2. dnet.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, ors

3. ibmmail.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique,

4. obspm.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, or

5. oecd.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, ors

6. phy.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, orsa

7. ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, orsa

8. cth.ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique,

9. lure.ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique,

10. lps.cth.ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifi

Enter selection (e.g., 2 0 1) --> 0

( 1) check_name: checking domain circe.fr. Level = 0

Search of domains completed. Proceeding to search of hosts.

( 3) check_name: checking host loire.circe.fr. Level = 0

( 4) check_name: checking host solrt.circe.fr. Level = 0

( 5) check_name: checking host groucho.circe.fr. Level = 0

( 1) check_name: checking host rsovax.circe.fr. Level = 0

( 2) check_name: checking host ventura.circe.fr. Level = 0

( 1) do_connect: Finger service not available on host rsovax.circe.

can't

( 1) check_name: checking host earn-ng.circe.fr. Level = 0

( 4) check_name: checking host luregate.circe.fr. Level = 0

SYSTEM: loire.circe.fr

Login name: nadine In real life: Nadine Grange

Directory: /home/nadine Shell: /bin/csh

On since Sep 7 08:48:05 on ttyp0 4 days 21 hours Idle Time

New mail received Sun Sep 12 00:00:08 1993;

unread since Fri Sep 10 11:53:17 1993

No Plan.

Login name: nadine In real life: Nadine Grange

Directory: /home/nadine Shell: /bin/csh

On since Sep 7 09:17:09 on ttyp6 1 day 12 hours Idle Time

SUMMARY:

- "nadine" is currently logged in from

loire.circe.fr, since Sep 7 09:17:09.

- The most promising email address for "nadine"

based on the above search is

nadine@loire.circe.fr.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Note that Netfind found only an Internet address on a Unix

machine.

Learning more about NETFIND

The remote access version of Netfind has a large Help section.

There is also a set of frequently asked questions available with

the software release, in the Doc directory. These questions cov-

er Functionality, Methodology, Network and Remote Site Load, Pri-

vacy, Future Directions, and Related Work.

A noteworthy article on Netfind is:

Experience with a Semantically Cognizant Internet White Pages

Experience with a Semantically Cognizant Internet White Pages

Directory Tool, by M. F. Schwartz and P. G. Tsirigotis, Journal

of Internetworking Research and Experience, March 1991, pp.

23-50.

This publication discusses the research principles, performance,

and scope measurements of Netfind, and compares it with other

white pages facilities.

There is a mailing list for Netfind users (for software updates

and other discussions). To be added to the list, send an email

message to netfind-users-request@cs.colorado.edu with the body

(not subject line) subscribe netfind-users

Part 5

GETTING FILES

TRICKLE

What is TRICKLE

TRICKLE is a service which will send you files on request or by

subscription. TRICKLE works with various anonymous FTP sites

(computers in the Internet network that allow public access and

retrieval of software and files). It provides a quick and easy

alternative to FTP, whether or not you have access to the Inter-

net.

There are several TRICKLE servers throughout the world that coop-

erate to distribute the files efficiently. To request files, the

user issues commands to the nearest TRICKLE server, which deliv-

ers the software either from its local cache disk, from the cache

of another TRICKLE server, or from an FTP site that holds the

software.

Who can use TRICKLE

There are currently TRICKLE servers at the following addresses:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Location EARN/BITNET Internet |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| Austria TRICKLE@AWIWUW11 TRICKLE@awiwuw11.wu-wien.ac.at

| Belgium TRICKLE@BANUFS11 TRICKLE@ccs.ufsia.ac.be |

| Colombia TRICKLE@UNALCOL TRICKLE@unalcol.unal.edu.co |

| France TRICKLE@FRMOP11 TRICKLE@frmop11.cnusc.fr |

| Germany TRICKLE@DEARN TRICKLE@vm.gmd.de |

| Israel TRICKLE@TAUNIVM TRICKLE@vm.tau.ac.il |

| Italy TRICKLE@IMIPOLI TRICKLE@imipoli.cdc.polimi.it|

| Netherlands TRICKLE@HEARN TRICKLE@hearn.nic.surfnet.nl |

| Poland TRICKLE@PLEARN TRICKLE@plearn.edu.pl |

| Sweden TRICKLE@SEARN TRICKLE@searn.sunet.se |

| Turkey TRICKLE@TREARN TRICKLE@ege.edu.tr |

| Turkey TRICKLE@TRMETU TRICKLE@3090.cc.metu.edu.tr |

| UK TRICKLE@UKACRL TRICKLE@ib.rl.ac.uk |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

When you send a command to a TRICKLE server, it either executes

the command or sends you a message with the address of the

TRICKLE server for your area.

The files which are available from TRICKLE are organized in main

directories which contain many subdirectories. The main directo-

ries which are currently available are:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Directory Source FTP Site Contents |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| MSDOS simtel20.army.mil Large MS-DOS software archive

| MISC simtel20.army.mil Software for VM, VMS, Unix

| SIGM simtel20.army.mil SIG/M CP/M archive |

| PC-BLUE simtel20.army.mil PC-BLUE MS-DOS archive |

| CPM simtel20.army.mil CP/M Software Archive |

| ARCHIVES simtel20.army.mil Various discussion group archives

| UNIX-C simtel20.army.mil Unix and C code software archives

| MACINTOS simtel20.army.mil Apple Macintosh software archives

| OS2 0tp-os2.nmsu.ed Large archive of OS/2 software

| AMIGA nic.funet.fi Large Amiga collection |

| KERMIT watsun.cc.columbia.edu Kermit network software |

| TEX rusinfo.rus-uni-stuttgart.de TeX software and fonts

| WUARCHIVE wuarchive.wustl.edu MS-DOS and others |

| EXPO-MIT export.lcs.mit.edu Unix and others |

| UUNET ftp.uu.net Unix and others |

| SUMEX-AIM sumex-aim.stanford.edu Macintosh and others |

| GARFIELD garfield.catt.ncsu.edu Multimedia (pictures and sounds)

| X11 export.lcs.mit.edu X-Windows software distribution

| LINUX nic.funet.fi Linux system software

distribution

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Not all directories are available at all servers. If your closest

server does not provide the directory of your choice, you can use

any other TRICKLE for the missing directory. If your closest ser-

ver is temporarily unavailable, you can use any other TRICKLE

instead.

How to get to TRICKLE

You send commands to TRICKLE by electronic mail. The commands

should be in the body of the mail message, one command per line.

Any number of commands (up to your daily command limit) may be

placed in one message. Users on the EARN/Bitnet network may also

send commands to TRICKLE by interactive message.

Using TRICKLE

All commands begin with a slash (/). Note that the angle brackets

(<>) are part of the command, not an indication of an optional

parameter.

Use the /PDDIR command to obtain directory listings.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| /PDDIR |

| |

| /PDDIR <dirname> |

| |

| /PDDIR <dirname.subdirname>pattern |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

dirname is the name of a main directory,

subdirname

is the name of a subdirectory,

pattern is part of a filename.

Use /PDDIR without any parameters to get a listing of the main

directories. With PDDIR <dirname> you will get a listing of the

subdirectories under that directory. If you specify both directo-

ry and subdirectory, it will list the files that are available in

that subdirectory. With pattern, you will get a listing of only

those files that match or begin with that pattern. Wildcards "?"

and "*" may be imbedded into subdirname and pattern ("?" matches

any single character; "*" matches any number of characters).

Use the /PDGET command to get files.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| /PDGET <dirname.subdirname>filename ( delivery-option |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

dirname is the name of a main directory,

subdirname

is the name of a subdirectory,

filename is the name of a file.

delivery-option

specifies the format to which the file(s) should be

translated before being sent to you. The possible val-

ues are:

EBC80 UUE XXE HEX BTOA

The option EBC80 should be used to get text files if

you work on an IBM mainframe system. The other options

are formats for translating binary files so that they

can be sent via electronic mail. You will need a pro-

gram to translate the file back to its original form.

The default for EARN/Bitnet users is to send the file

as-is. The default for others is UUE.

Wildcards "?" and "*" may be imbedded into subdirname and file-

name ("?" matches any single character; "*" matches any number of

characters) to get several files.

The /SUB command is used to subscribe to directories or to indi-

vidual files.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| /SUB <dirname> |

| |

| /SUB <dirname.subdirname>pattern |

| |

| /SUB QUERY |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

dirname is the name of a main directory,

subdirname

is the name of a subdirectory,

pattern is part of a filename.

If you subscribe to a directory, you will get a summary of added

files about once a week, depending on how active the FTP site is.

This listing shows the names, sizes and dates of each file added.

If you subscribe to files, as soon as TRICKLE is informed that a

new version of the file has been stored at its FTP site, a copy

of the file will be sent to you.

Note that since filenames usually reflect the version number of

the file, it is a good idea to omit the number when specifying a

pattern. For example, it is better to send the command:

/SUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>SCANV

rather than

/SUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>SCANV106

since, as new versions of the file are stored, the name might

change to SCANV107, SCANV108, etc.

Wildcards are not allowed with the /SUB command.

The /SUB QUERY command allows you to get a list of the files you

are subscribed to.

The /UNSUB command may be used to cancel a subscription.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| /UNSUB <dirname> |

| |

| /UNSUB <dirname.subdirname>pattern |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

dirname is the name of a main directory,

subdirname

is the name of a subdirectory,

pattern is part of a filename.

The command /UNSUB * may be used to terminate all your directory

and file subscriptions.

Examples

For a listing of the files in the VIRUS subdirectory of SIMTEL20

(the MSDOS directory), send the command:

/PDDIR <MSDOS.VIRUS>

To get the file 00-INDEX.TXT from <MSDOS.VIRUS> in EBCDIC format,

send the command:

/PDGET <MSDOS.VIRUS>00-INDEX.TXT ( EBC80

If you are not sure of the exact name of the file, you can use

wildcards:

/PDGET <MSDOS.VIR*>*INDEX* ( EBC80

To subscribe to automatically get new versions of the SCANV soft-

ware from <MSDOS.VIRUS>, send the command:

/SUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>SCANV

To unsubscribe from all files in the VIRUS subdirectory, send the

command:

/UNSUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>*

Learning more about TRICKLE

The /HELP command may be sent to any TRICKLE server to obtain a

very detailed help file from the server.

A brief guide to TRICKLE is available from the EARN documentation

filelist. Send mail to LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET. In the body of

the message, write:

GET TRICKLE MEMO

BITFTP

What is BITFTP

BITFTP, BITNET FTP Server, allows users of EARN, Bitnet and asso-

ciated networks to access FTP sites on the Internet.

The BITFTP server provides a mail interface between a user on the

EARN/Bitnet network to FTP sites on the Internet. BITFTP handles

this task by passing the commands specified in the mail message

from the user to another server that actually makes the connec-

tion to the FTP sites. When the server finishes the interaction

with the FTP site, or fails due to an error, a transcript of the

result is sent back to the user, as well as the requested

file(s), if any.

The format of the files sent to the user can be defined within

the mail message. BITFTP can deliver files in netdata and uuen-

code formats.

Who can use BITFTP

BITFTP is currently available only to users on EARN, Bitnet and

other regional NJE networks. BITFTP does not support multiple

file request via the mget command nor does it support sending

files to FTP sites (the put command).

How to get to BITFTP

There are BITFTP servers currently running at:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| BITFTP@DEARN.BITNET Germany |

| BITFTP@PUCC.BITNET USA |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Users on the EARN/Bitnet international network only may use the

US server. Only users from EARN member countries may use the

server in Germany. Servers at other locations are planned.

BITFTP accepts requests via electronic mail, including IBM NOTE

and PROFS-format messages, as well as by NJE file transfer.

Using BITFTP

BITFTP implements a large subset of the FTP commands of the IBM's

TCP/IP for VM, using the same syntax. This software is documented

in the IBM manual TCP/IP for VM User's Guide. In the following,

angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional parameter.

Use the ftp command to specify which host to connect to. This

command must be the first command in your mail file. You can also

specify the file format that you wish BITFTP to use to deliver

files to you.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| ftp hostname <fileformat> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

hostname is either the IP address or the domain name of the host

to connect to,

fileformat

is the format in which BITFTP should deliver files to

you. It can be either netdata or uuencode.

Use the user command to tell the host the username and the

password to be used for the FTP connection. Note that on many

FTP sites, both username and password are case-sensitive.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| user username password |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

username is the user-id to use for the FTP connection,

password is the password for the username you specified. It can

be omitted if you specified anonymous for the userid.

Use the cd command to select a particular directory as current

directory.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| cd directory-name |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

directory-name

is the name of the directory to be selected.

Use the dir command to display a list of the files in the cur-

rent, or specified, directory. The file names, and depending on

the site, the file size, file creation date and other informa-

tion will be listed.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| dir <pattern> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

pattern is a pattern that defines which file names should be

displayed. Many FTP sites are case-sensitive, thus care

must be used with the pattern. The pattern may contain

any number of characters, and the wildcard character

"*" (asterisk) may be used to represent any characters.

The ls command is similar to the dir command, except that with

most FTP sites, it only displays the filenames, without any other

information. The pattern specification is identical to dir.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| ls <pattern> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the get command to obtain a file from the current host.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| get foreignname <localname> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

foreignname

is the filename of the file, as stored at the FTP site.

With many sites, the case of the filename must be

respected.

localname is an optional local filename. If you specify a local-

name, it must be in the form: filename.filetype where

neither part is longer than eight characters.

Use the binary command to set the FTP transfer mode. If this

option is set then no EBCDIC-ASCII translation will take place.

This should be used for non-text files.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| binary |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the quit command to close the connection to the host,

and to terminate the BITFTP session.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| quit |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Examples

To get the file how.to.ftp.guide from the directory

/pub/nic/network.service.guides at the anonymous FTP site

nic.sura.net, and to get a listing of the files in that

directory, you could send the following commands by e-mail to

BITFTP:

ftp nic.sura.net

user anonymous

cd pub/nic/network.service.guides

get how.to.ftp.guide

dir

quit

In response you will receive an e-mail containing the following

lines (some lines have been removed for brevity):

> ftp nic.sura.net

> user anonymous

>> OPEN NIC.SURA.NET

>> USER anonymous

> cd pub/nic/network.service.guides

>> CD pub/nic/network.service.guides

> get how.to.ftp.guide

>>>> "how.to.ftp.guide" sent as "HOWTO FTPGUIDE".

> dir

total 60

-rw-rw-r-- 1 mtaranto 120 344 Apr 14 1992 README

-rw-rw-r-- 1 mtaranto 120 12759 Oct 30 1992 how.to.email.guide

-rw-rw-r-- 1 mtaranto 120 6327 Mar 24 13:28 how.to.ftp.guide

-rw-rw-r-- 1 root 120 2818 Mar 4 1992 how.to.telnet.guide

-rw-rw-r-- 1 mtaranto 120 6136 Oct 30 1992 how.to.use.vi.guide

-rw-r--r-- 1 1086 120 0 Aug 18 21:23 plane.

The above directory listing is typical of the format of Unix FTP

sites. There is information on file permissions and ownership as

well as the size of the file in bytes, the time and date of its

last change, and the file name.

You could request the first two files by once again sending mail

to BITFTP with the following commands:

ftp nic.sura.net

user anonymous

cd pub/nic/network.service.guides

get README

get how.to.email.guide

quit

Learning more about BITFTP

A four-page instruction to the BITFTP service can be obtained by

sending a help command in the body of a mail message to either

BITFTP server.

Additional information on BITFTP may be obtained from EARN

(NETHELP@EARNCC.BITNET). More information about TCP/IP and FTP in

general can be obtained from a wide variety of sources, such as

the documents mentioned in the example above.

Part 6

NETWORKED INTEREST GROUPS

LISTSERV (Version 1.7f)

What is LISTSERV

LISTSERV is a distribution list management package. It runs on

IBM VM/CMS systems in the international NJE network (EARN/

Bitnet). It allows groups of computer users with a common inter-

est to communicate among themselves, while making efficient use

of computer and network resources. It makes it easy for even nov-

ice users to discover, join, and participate in these interest

group mailing lists. LISTSERV also provides facilities for log-

ging and archiving of mail traffic, file server functions, and

database searches of archives and files.

There are LISTSERV lists on every subject under the sun, with

names ranging from AARPUB-L (AAR Electronic Publication list) to

Z3950IW (Z39.50 Implementors Workshop). LISTSERV lists are inter-

national and eclectic. You will find lists in every imaginable

field, for every audience, in many different countries and in

many different languages. See the description of the List command

in the section Using LISTSERV section for instructions on getting

an up-to-date list of lists.

Who can use LISTSERV

Anyone who can send electronic mail to an EARN/Bitnet address can

participate in a mailing list and access other LISTSERV facili-

ties, as long as the e-mail format is valid (according to the

RFC822 standard), and has a usable return address. Every day,

people use LISTSERV from HEPnet, Internet, Compuserve, MCIMail

and many other networks throughout the world.

If you don't know how to send electronic mail to EARN/Bitnet, ask

your local support people for help.

How to get to LISTSERV

To use LISTSERV facilities, send electronic mail with your

LISTSERV commands to: LISTSERV@host-id where host-id is the host

computer's NJE address (for example, TAUNIVM.BITNET) or its

Internet domain name (in this case, VM.TAU.AC.IL). There may be

some local variation on the format needed to send mail to Bitnet

or Internet addresses. Check with your local support personnel.

More than one command can be sent to LISTSERV in the same mail

message. Each command must be on a separate line. LISTSERV will

ignore the Subject: line of the mail header, so ensure that your

commands are in the body of the e-mail.

For EARN/Bitnet users, interactive messages are the fastest and

most convenient way to send commands to LISTSERV, but bear in

mind that interactive messages only work when the links between

your computer and LISTSERV are up; if the message fails, you can

always send your command via mail.

To facilitate communications with the LISTSERV servers on the

EARN/Bitnet network, a special LISTSERV computer node has been

defined. This means that any EARN/Bitnet user can address their

commands to the userid LISTSERV at the special node LISTSERV.

All non-EARN/Bitnet users may address their command mail to the

userid LISTSERV at the special node LISTSERV.NET. Note that if

this node is not yet defined on your network, you may also try

LISTSERV%LISTSERV.BITNET@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU. For example, if you

wanted to join the 3D-L mailing list that discusses 3D computer

graphics but are not sure of the address of the LISTSERV server

hosting this list. You could send a subscription request to

either of the following addresses:

LISTSERV@LISTSERV.NET

LISTSERV@LISTSERV (on BITNET)

Your subscription request will be automatically forwarded on to

the LISTSERV server hosting the 3D-L mailing list (in this case,

at the computer node ARIZVM1).

You may also utilize the special LISTSERV address to send e-mail

to any LISTSERV mailing list if you are unsure of its address.

For example, if you wanted to send mail to the BITFTP-L mailing

list to request a copy of the BITFTP product, you could do so by

addressing your e-mail to BITFTP-L@LISTSERV.NET. It will automat-

ically be forwarded to the list's real address (in this case,

BITFTP-L@EARNCC.BITNET) when it reaches the LISTSERV node. Once

you know the real address of a list, it should be used for all

future mail sent to that list.

There are more than 250 sites in over 30 countries throughout the

world running LISTSERV as part of the world-wide network. Here

are a few of the LISTSERV sites:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Host Computer Site Country|

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| BITNIC BITNET Network Information Center USA|

| DEARN GMD, Bonn Germany|

| EARNCC EARN Office, Paris France|

| HEARN Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen Netherlands|

| PUCC Princeton University, New Jersey USA|

| SEARN Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm Sweden|

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Using LISTSERV

The commands given here are available for everyone and require no

special LISTSERV command privileges. Only the most common com-

mands are described. For a complete list of non-privileged

LISTSERV commands, retrieve the LISTSERV User Guide in the DOC

FILELIST from LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET.

Commands are presented in a particular format: CAPITAL letters

indicate acceptable abbreviation, angle brackets (<>) indicate an

optional parameter, and vertical bar (|) indicates a choice of

parameters. All parameters are fully explained in each command

description.

There is a standard set of command keywords available for use in

some LISTSERV commands. They may be used with any commands where

they appear as optional parameters in the command description.

The important standard keywords are:

PW= password

This keyword is used to specify a password in a com-

mand. If you have registered a personal password on a

LISTSERV server, you will then have to validate certain

commands by using the PW= command keyword in the com-

mand text. This feature is designed to prevent impo-

stors from issuing commands while using your e-mail

address. The use of passwords is strongly recommended

for this reason. See the PW command for details on reg-

PW

istering personal passwords. Once you have registered a

personal password at a LISTSERV server, you will be

obliged to include the PW= command keyword in all com-

mands where it appears as an option.

F= format This keyword controls the file format (or internal file

structure) in which files will be sent to you. If you

are not a member of the EARN/Bitnet network, then

LISTSERV will always use the default file format of

MAIL. Otherwise, the default file format is dependent

upon the information held in the BITEARN NODES file

regarding your computer. The BITEARN NODES file is a

special network definition file used in the EARN/Bitnet

network. Any user may ask for a file format other than

their default by specifying it in the F= command key-

word in the commands where it appears as an option.

Note that this will not permanently change your default

file format, its effect is only for those commands

where it is specified. Following is a list of file for-

mats that are valid for all users:

XXE UUe MIME/text MIME/Appl MAIL

In addition, EARN/Bitnet users may specify:

Netdata Card Disk Punch LPunch VMSdump

Contact your local support personnel for more informa-

tion about the file formats supported on your computer.

Commands for LISTS:

The primary function of LISTSERV is to operate mailing lists

(also referred to as distribution lists). Mailing lists are used

to distribute the e-mail sent to them to a list a recipients.

They provide the means for a group of users to establish an

e-mail forum on any topic or area of common interest. This ser-

vice provides an extremely convenient means for the exchange of

ideas and information between list members since LISTSERV (and

not the mail sender) manages the distribution of e-mail to all of

its final recipients. Users need only to remember one list

address to which they send their mail in order to communicate to

a potentially large number of users. Due to the efficiency with

which LISTSERV distributes e-mail to list members, discussions or

debates with a world-wide audience may be conducted.

The following commands are designed for use with LISTSERV mailing

lists. With them you may do things such as finding the names and

addresses of lists, signing on to or off lists, reviewing lists

or changing your personal options for any mailing list to which

you are subscribed.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| SUBscribe list-name <full-name> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the SUBscribe command to join a mailing list. You can also

use this command to alter the name (but not e-mail address) by

which you are known on a mailing list you have already joined.

The list-name parameter is the name of the list to which you want

to subscribe. For example, the EARN User Group list located at

the node IRLEARN has a list name of EARN-UG. Do not confuse this

with the list's address (EARN-UG@IRLEARN) which should not be

used. The optional full-name parameter allows you to give a name

by which you want to be known on a mailing list. If specified, it

should be your full, real name (at least your first name and last

name) and not your e-mail address. If you send this command to

LISTSERV via command mail, the name for the full-name option will

be taken from the name given in the From: mail header should it

be omitted from the command text. If you send a SUBscribe command

for a list to which you already belong, then LISTSERV will inter-

pret the command as a request to change your full-name on the

list.

A request to join a mailing list can be processed in three ways:

subscription to a list may be OPEN, CLOSED, or BY-OWNER. If it is

OPEN, you will be automatically added to the list and sent noti-

fication. If it is CLOSED, you will not be added to the list, and

LISTSERV will send you a message telling you that your request

has been rejected. If it is BY-OWNER, your subscription request

will be forwarded to the list owner(s), who will decide whether

or not to add you to the list (LISTSERV will inform you to whom

your request has been forwarded). To see what kind of subscrip-

tion a list has, use the REView command.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| UNSubscribe list-name | * <(NETWIDE> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the UNSubscribe command to leave a mailing list. The list-

name parameter is the name of a mailing list from which you want

to remove your subscription. You can signoff all the lists to

which you are a member at any particular LISTSERV site by using

the "*" (asterisk) character in the place of a list name. If you

want your UNSubscribe command to be propagated to all LISTSERV

servers on the network, include the (NETWIDE option. Use this

option if you are changing your e-mail address or are leaving

your computer for an extended period.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| List <options> <F= format> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the List command to get a listing of available mailing lists

at a LISTSERV server. The options parameter may be any of the

following:

Short This option displays a summary of all the lists managed

by a LISTSERV in a brief, one line description. This is

the default.

Long The Long (or Detailed) option will send a file (called

node-name LISTS) to you that contains a comprehensive

description of the lists managed by a LISTSERV server.

Global <pattern>

This option gives a complete list of all known LISTSERV

mailing lists at all servers at the time the command is

issued. A file (called LISTSERV LISTS) will be sent to

you containing the names, titles and e-mail addresses

of these lists. This is a very large file, so make sure

you have the necessary disk space to accommodate its

size before you use the Global option. The optional

pattern parameter can be used to match any string in

the list name, list title or list address.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| REView list-name <(> <options> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the REView command to receive a listing of a mailing list. It

will be sent to you as a file called list-name LIST (or list-name

node-name for peered lists). A mailing list is comprised of two

parts: a control section and a subscription section. The control

section holds the definition parameters for a list which includes

information such as who is authorized to review or join a list

and whether or not it is archived. The subscription section holds

the e-mail addresses and names of all list members. The REView

command allows you to receive a listing of either or both of

these sections (the default is both) for any list, provided you

are authorized to do so. Note that at the discretion of the list

owner(s), the REView command can be restricted in use to list

members only. In this case, you will not be authorized to review

a mailing list if you are not a member of that list yourself.

Also, individual list members can restrict the appearance of

their e-mail address and name in response to a REView command if

they have set the CONCEAL mailing list option (see the SET com-

mand for more details). The list-name parameter is the name of

the LISTSERV list you wish to review. The important options are:

Short This option restricts the information you receive to

the control section of a list (giving its definition

parameters) and does not return the subscription sec-

tion of a list (giving the list members).

Countries If you use this option, the list of members will be

organized by the nationality given in their e-mail

addresses.

LOCal If the list is peered (that is, it is linked to other

mailing lists of the same name but on different

LISTSERV servers), you will receive listings of all of

these mailing lists in response to a REView command.

The LOCal option can be used to suppress the propaga-

tion of the REView command to the LISTSERV servers

hosting these peered mailing lists. In this case, you

will receive a listing only from the server to which

you send the REView command and not the others.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Query list-name | * |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

When you join any mailing list, you will be assigned a default

set of list options that control such things as way you received

mail when it is distributed and the type of notification LISTSERV

will give you when it distributes mail you have sent to a list.

These are the personal list options that may be altered on any

mailing list to which you are subscribed to suite your circum-

stances. See the SET command for a complete descriptions of these

options. The Query command can be used to review the personal

list options you have in effect at any mailing list. The list-

name parameter is the name of a list to which you are subscribed.

If you use an "*" (asterisk) character instead of a list name,

you will receive information about your personal options for all

lists to which you belong at the LISTSERV to which you send the

command.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| SET list-name | * options |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the SET command to change your personal options for a mailing

list. These options will remain in effect until they are explic-

itly changed. The Query command can be used to display your cur-

rent optional settings for any list to which you are subscribed.

The list-name parameter is the name of the mailing list for which

you are changing your options. You may change your options for a

specific list or for all the lists you belong to at a particular

LISTSERV by using the "*" (asterisk) character in place of a list

name. After processing your SET command, LISTSERV will send you

conformation of the successful alteration of your mailing list

options via e-mail. The important options are:

Mail | DIGests | INDex | NOMail

These options of the SET command alter the way in which

you receive mail from a mailing list. The Mail option

means that you wish to have list mail distributed to

you as mail. This is the default. The DIGests and

INDex options are available only if a list has had

these features enabled by its owner(s). Digests hold

all the mail messages sent to a list over a certain

period of time. Instead of receiving each mail individ-

ually as it is distributed to list members, you will

receive all the mail in one batch for a given day, week

or month. You may then browse through these mail mes-

sages at your leisure. Note that mail is not edited

with the DIGests option, you will receive copies of all

the mail messages in their entirety. The INDex option

will provide you with only the date, time, subject,

number of lines and the sender's name and address for

all mail messages sent to a list. The text of the mail

message will not be included. You may then select and

retrieve any mail that interests you from the list

archive. Both the DIGests and INDex options provide a

means of listening in to discussions on mailing lists

without having to deal with large quantities of incom-

ing mail messages. The NOMail option means that mail

sent to the list will not be distributed to you. This

is useful when you are leaving your computer for an

extended period of time and you do not want mail from

the list to fill your mailbox. When you return, you can

send the SET command with the Mail option to restore

mail service.

SHORThdr | FULLhdr | IETFhdr | DUALhdr

All mail messages are comprised of header and body sec-

tions. The header section provides details such as the

recipients, the original sender and the date and time a

mail message was sent. The mail body section contains

the text of a mail message. These options of the SET

command indicate the type of mail headers you want to

receive in the mail distributed from a mailing list.

SHORThdr means that the mail header will include only

the essential informational headers (for instance the

Date:, To:, From:, Subject:, Sender: and Reply-to:

headers). This is the default. You may change this to

FULLhdr, which means that all (including non-essential)

mail headers will be present in e-mail. The IETFhdr

option means that LISTSERV will not change the headers

of a mail message it distributes to you other than to

add a Received: mail header (and also a Message-id: and

Sender: headers if either of these were not already

present). This option is designed specifically for com-

patibility with SMTP exploders (as used, for instance,

on the Internet network). Lastly, DUALhdr is very simi-

lar to the SHORThdr option except that LISTSERV will

also insert mail headers at the beginning of the mail

body. Therefore, when the mail is received and read by

a recipient using this option, it will start with this

information (for instance, the first three lines of a

mail message may contain the To:, From: and Subject:

mail headers). This option is useful for users of some

PC based mail packages that will not display this

information from the real mail headers.

CONCEAL | NOCONCEAL

Indicates whether or not you want your name and mail

address to appear in the display of list members which

is given in response to a REView command. The default

is NOCONCEAL. Note that a complete list of members is

always given to list owners and LISTSERV administrators

regardless of this option.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| CONFIRM list-name |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the CONFIRM command to renew your subscription to a list.

Some mailing lists require subscription renewal at regular inter-

vals (usually once a year). A mail message is automatically sent

to list members indicating that they must send a CONFIRM command

within a given number of days or they will be removed from the

list. This command must be sent from the same e-mail address that

received the confirmation notice. The list-name parameter is the

name of the mailing list to which you are confirming your sub-

scription. LISTSERV will send a message that your subscription

has been confirmed.

Commands for FILES:

LISTSERV also functions as a file server. That is, files can be

stored at a LISTSERV server and made available for retrieval by

users upon their request. These files are stored in LISTSERV

under a hierarchical system of filelists. As the name suggests, a

filelist is a special file that holds a list of files. Each entry

in a filelist describes a file that is available for retrieval

and gives details such as the file's name and size and also a

file's access code (also known as a FAC) which describes who is

authorized to retrieve it. These files may themselves be file-

lists, in which case they too will hold information about avail-

able files or further filelists. In this way, filelists are

organized in a hierarchical or tree structure.

There are two basic types of filelists on LISTSERV servers. The

first type holds files that have been specifically placed there

by file owners or LISTSERV administrators. These files may be

documents, maps or diagrams, or even programs. The second type of

filelist is associated with a LISTSERV mailing list. These are

referred to as list filelists and retain copies of all e-mail

distributed on a particular mailing list. They consist of a

series of files, each of which holds a copy of the mail messages

distributed on a list over an interval of time (usually, one

month). These files may then be retrieved to recover any list

mail distributed during a specific period. Note that e-mail dis-

tributed on a mailing list may also be retrieved via the database

functions of LISTSERV. Not all mailing lists have an associated

list filelist; this is enabled at a list owner's discretion.

A further aspect of the file server functions of LISTSERV is the

concept of packages. A package consists of one or more files that

appear in a filelist. These may be, for example, a series of

files that go to make up a software package. A package is

declared in a LISTSERV filelist through a file that has the spe-

cial name of package-name $PACKAGE. Within it will be a list of

all the files that comprise the package. This list can be

reviewed by sending a retrieval request for that file. However,

all the files that comprise the package may also be retrieved

through a request for the file: package-name PACKAGE. Note that

in this case, the "$" (dollar) symbol is dropped from the name.

The files that go to make up the package will then automatically

be sent to the requestor. This enables users to retrieve an

entire set of files that belong to a package with only one com-

mand, instead of having to retrieve each of these files individu-

ally through a series of commands.

The following LISTSERV commands enable general users to manipu-

late files that are stored at a server. This includes commands to

search for, retrieve and subscribe to files. When sending file

server commands to LISTSERV, you must address them to the server

and not to any mailing lists. Note that where the PW= keyword

appears in a command description, this need only be included in

the command text if you have defined a personal password at the

server to which you are sending file server commands. Otherwise,

it need not be used. The optional F= command keyword may included

as desired.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| INDex <filelist> <F= format> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use the INDex command to get a listing of the files in a particu-

lar filelist. The filelist parameter specifies the name of the

filelist you wish to get. If no name is specified, an index of

the root filelist (called LISTSERV FILELIST) will be sent to you.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| GET filename filetype <filelist> <F= format> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

The GET command is used to retrieve a specific file or package

from a filelist, provided you are authorized to do so. The file-

name and filetype parameters identify the file or package you

wish to retrieve. The optional filelist parameter identifies the

filelist within which the file or package resides. If it is not

supplied in the command, LISTSERV will determine the filelist

through a search of its own internal filelist index.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| AFD options |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

AFD is an acronym for Automatic File Distribution. This command

enables you to subscribe to a file or package in a filelist.

Every time this file or package is updated in its filelist, you

will then automatically be sent of copy of it by the LISTSERV

server. You may subscribe to any number of files for packages

from any filelist with the AFD command. You may also review or

delete your subscriptions at any LISTSERV server. The options

must be one of the following:

ADD filename filetype <filelist> <text> <PW= password> <F=format>

The ADD option allows you to subscribe to a file or

package. This means that a copy will henceforth be sent

to you automatically by LISTSERV when it is updated on

its filelist. The filename and filetype parameters

identify a file or package to which you want to sub-

scribe. The filelist option allows you to specify the

name of the filelist in which it is located. If this is

not specified in the command, LISTSERV will locate the

filelist through a search of its own internal filelist

index. Also, if you wish to have an informational text

message inserted automatically at the top of the file

or package when it is sent to you, you may use the text

parameter. Note that if you omit the filelist option,

the text you provide in the text parameter must be

enclosed in double quotes ("). This parameter is most

commonly used by network server applications that sub-

scribe to files at a LISTSERV on behalf of users. If

you are subscribing to files directly from LISTSERV

yourself, you should not need to use this option.

DELete filename filetype <filelist> <PW= password>

Remove your subscription to a file or package for which

you have an AFD. The filename and filetype parameters

identify a file or package to which you wish to remove

an AFD. These names may also include the "*" (asterisk)

wildcard character so that multiple files or packages

may be removed with one DELete command. The filelist

option allows you to specify the name of the filelist

in which it is located. If this is not specified in the

command, LISTSERV will locate the filelist through a

search of its own internal filelist index.

List <(FORMAT>

The List option shows the files or packages to which

you are currently subscribed at a LISTSERV. If you

include the (FORMAT option, then the file format to be

used when a file or package is sent to you will also be

displayed.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| FUI options |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

FUI is an acronym for File Update Information. It enables you to

subscribe to a file or package in a filelist. Every time this

file for package is updated in its filelist, you will then auto-

matically be informed of this by the LISTSERV server. This com-

mand is similar to the AFD command, except you will only be sent

notification of an update rather than the updated file or package

itself. You may subscribe to any number of files for packages

from any filelist with the FUI command. You may also review or

FUI

delete your subscriptions at any LISTSERV server. The options

parameter must be one of the following:

ADD filename filetype <filelist> <PW= password>

The ADD option allows you to subscribe to a file or

package by adding an FUI to it. The filename and file-

type parameters identify a file or package to which you

want to add an FUI subscription. The filelist option

allows you to specify the name of the filelist in which

it is located. If this is not given in the command,

LISTSERV will locate the filelist through a search of

its own internal filelist index.

DELete filename filetype <filelist> <PW= password>

Remove your subscription from a file or package for

which you have an FUI. The filename and filetype param-

eters identify a file or package to which you want to

delete an FUI. The filelist option allows you to speci-

fy the name of the filelist in which it is located. If

this is not specified in the command, LISTSERV will

locate the filelist through a search of its own inter-

nal filelist index.

List The List option shows the files or packages for which

you currently have an FUI subscription at a LISTSERV

server.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Query File filename filetype <filelist> <(FLags> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

This command can be used to get update information on various

files. Update information about the file or package specified in

the filename and filetype parameters will be given. Optionally,

you may include a filelist name in the filelist parameter. If it

is omitted, LISTSERV will locate the filelist through a search of

its own internal filelist index. You may also specify the (FLags

option to display additional technical data about the file (which

can be useful when reporting problems to LISTSERV administra-

tors).

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| PW options |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

The PW command enables you to add, change or delete a personal

password on any LISTSERV server. A personal password is designed

to give you added command security on a LISTSERV since it helps

prevent impostors using your e-mail address. The use of personal

passwords is strongly encouraged for this reason. Every server

will accept a password registration request from you at any time.

Passwords are comprised of one to eight alphanumeric characters.

You may change or delete your password at any time. The options

parameter must be one of the following:

ADD new-password

Add a new personal password on the LISTSERV processing

your command. Once you have registered a password on a

LISTSERV server, you will be obliged to use the PW=

command keyword in the commands where it appears as an

option.

CHange old-password new-password

Change your personal password on a LISTSERV server

where you already have one.

DELete old-password

Remove your personal password from a LISTSERV where you

already have one. Once you have removed a password from

a LISTSERV server, you will no longer be obliged to use

the PW= command keyword in the commands where it

appears as an option.

LISTSERV DATABASE Functions

LISTSERV provides the facility for users to retrieve old mail

that has been distributed on mailing lists. Each mailing list has

an associated database (called a notebook or list archive data-

base) in which list mail is stored. Note that databases may not

be maintained for every mailing list, this is done at the discre-

tion of a list owner. The notebook databases are the most common-

ly used of the LISTSERV databases. However, every LISTSERV server

also has a database of all the EARN/Bitnet computer nodes (called

the BITEARN database). This is available to all LISTSERV users.

The backbone LISTSERV servers also have a database of all the

LISTSERV computer nodes (called the PEERS database). In addition

to these databases, a LISTSERV server may have any number of dif-

ferent databases that have been created locally. To find out what

databases are accessible at a particular LISTSERV site, send fol-

lowing command to that server:

DATABASE LIST

To perform a database search, you can send mail to LISTSERV con-

taining a batch database job which contains your database query.

In addition, EARN/Bitnet users on VM or VMS systems can access

the database facilities interactively via the LDBASE program. For

more details on the LISTSERV database facilities, send an Info

DATABASE command to your nearest (or any) LISTSERV server (see

the section Commands for INFORMATION) or consult the LISTSERV

DATABASE Functions chapter in the LISTSERV User Guide.

Commands for INFORMATION:

The LISTSERV server can provide a diverse range of information to

the general user. This includes help files, release levels of the

server and important configuration files, statistics and informa-

tion pertaining to the EARN/Bitnet network. When sending these

commands to LISTSERV, they must be addressed to the server and

not to any mailing lists it may manage. For those commands that

result in files being sent to the requestor (for example the Info

command), the format of the file can be specified by the optional

command keyword F= in the command text (see the section LISTSERV

Command Keywords for more information).

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Help |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use this command to get a brief description of the most commonly

used LISTSERV commands and also the name and e-mail address of

the server's postmaster.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| Info <topic> <F= format> |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Use this command to get an informational (or help) file from a

LISTSERV server. The topic option should specify the topic for

which an informational file will be sent to you. You may get a

list of valid topics by sending the Info command with no parame-

ters to your nearest (or any) LISTSERV.

Examples

You wish to subscribe to the EARNEWS list which is located at the

node FRMOP11. Your full name is Mark P. Waugh. Send the following

command to LISTSERV@FRMOP11.BITNET:

SUBSCRIBE EARNEWS Mark P. Waugh

You wish to leave the INFO-MAC mailing list (to which you have

already subscribed) at the node CEARN. The command:

UNSUBSCRIBE INFO-MAC

should be sent to the LISTSERV server at CEARN which manages the

INFO-MAC list. To leave all the LISTSERV lists you belong to

throughout the network, send the following command to your near-

est (or any) LISTSERV:

UNSUBSCRIBE * (NETWIDE

You wish to receive a listing of all mailing lists that have the

text europe in their name or title. Send the following command to

your nearest (or any) LISTSERV server:

LIST GLOBAL EUROPE

You want to stop receiving mail from all the lists at SEARN to

which you belong. Send the following command to the LISTSERV ser-

ver at SEARN:

SET * NOMAIL

You have received a message from the LISTSERV server at IRLEARN

asking you to confirm your subscription to the EARN-UG list. Send

the following command to that server:

CONFIRM EARN-UG

You wish to receive a listing of the files in the DOC FILELIST

The command:

INDEX DOC

should be sent to the LISTSERV server at EARNCC where this file-

list is located. Note that the above command is the same as issu-

ing a GET DOC FILELIST command.

You wish to retrieve the file PCPROG ZIP from a filelist and have

it sent to you in XXE file format. Send the following command to

the LISTSERV server that holds this file:

GET PCPROG ZIP F=XXE

You want to retrieve all the files that make up a package called

PROGRAM (as listed in a file called PROGRAM $PACKAGE) from a

filelist called SAMPLE. Send the command:

GET PROGRAM PACKAGE SAMPLE

You wish to subscribe to a file called BUGDET MEMO in a filelist

called EXPENSES with an AFD:

AFD ADD BUDGET MEMO EXPENSES

To subscribe to a file called VM EMAIL in the DOC FILELIST with

an FUI, you would send the following command to LISTSERV at node

EARNCC:

FUI ADD VM EMAIL DOC

Learning more about LISTSERV

A standard set of help files are available upon request from each

LISTSERV server. To get a copy of these files, use the INFO com-

mand (see the section Commands for INFORMATION).

Detailed documentation on LISTSERV (and related services) is

available from the DOC FILELIST at LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET. This

includes the LISTSERV User Guide which is available in both post-

script and plain text formats. To obtain a list of available doc-

uments use the INDex command (see the section Commands for

FILES).

There are several mailing lists for discussion of technical

LISTSERV issues. They are not intended for casual users, but they

should be of interest to advanced users. They are:

LSTSRV-L Technical forum on LISTSERV

LSTOWN-L LISTSERV list owners' forum

LDBASE-L Forum on LISTSERV database search capabilities

NETNEWS (USENET)

What is NETNEWS

Netnews, or Usenet as it is more commonly called, is a message

sharing system that exchanges messages electronically around the

world in a standard format. Messages exchanged on Usenet are

arranged by topic into categories called newsgroups. Netnews is,

thus, a huge collection of messages, being passed from machine to

machine. The messages may contain both plain text and encoded

binary information. The messages also contain header lines that

define who the message came from, when the message was posted,

where it was posted, where it has passed, and other administra-

tive information.

The major, hierarchical categories of Usenet newsgroups which are

distributed throughout the world are alt, comp, misc, news, rec,

sci, soc, and talk. There are many other major categories which

may be topical (eg, bionet, biz, vmsnet) and are usually distrib-

uted worldwide as well, or geographical and even organizational

(eg, ieee) or commercial (eg, clari). The latter categories are

usually distributed only with their area of interest. The messag-

es of many Bitnet LISTSERV mailing lists are also distributed in

Usenet under the major category bit.

The major categories are further broken down into more than 1200

newsgroups on different subjects which range from education for

the disabled to Star Trek and from environmental science to poli-

tics in the former Soviet Union. The quality of the discussion in

newsgroups is not guaranteed to be high. Some newsgroups have a

moderator who scans the messages for the group before they are

distributed and decides which ones are appropriate for distribu-

tion.

Usenet was originally developed for Unix systems in 1979. Within

a year, fifty Unix sites were participating. Now, there are thou-

sands of sites running a number of operating systems on a variety

of hardware platforms communicating via Usenet around the globe.

Who can use NETNEWS

Usenet newsgroups can be read at thousands of sites around the

world. In addition, there are several sites that provide public

dial-up service so that people who are not at a Usenet site can

have access to newsgroups as well. If you don't know if your site

has Usenet access, check with your local computer support people.

Protocols and software for the distribution of news are in use in

several networks, such as the Internet, UUCP, EARN/Bitnet and

Fidonet.

If you have e-mail service only, then you can not access Usenet.

However, many newsgroups are connected to mailing lists which you

could join. For a list of these newsgroups and their associated

mailing lists, send mail to LISTSERV@AMERICAN.EDU with the line:

GET NETGATE GATELIST Moreover, many of the documents which appear

periodically in newsgroups are available by e-mail from mail-

server@rtfm.mit.edu. For instructions, send a message with the

subject HELP

How to get to NETNEWS

If your site provides Usenet access, then you just need to use

one of the many software packages available for reading news (at

least one is probably available on your computer). These packages

either access a local news spool, or use the Network News

Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to access the news spool on some other

computer in the network.

Within EARN, a network of Netnews distribution has been devel-

oped, providing efficient distribution of Usenet traffic while

minimising the load on the network for the participating coun-

tries.

If Usenet is not available to you and you would like to arrange

access for your site, contact your system administrator. You

should also read the article How to become a USENET site which is

posted periodically to the news.answers newsgroup. It is also

available by anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as

/pub/usenet/news.answers/site-setup or by mail to:

mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with the line: send

usenet/news.answers/site-setup.

Using NETNEWS

There are many software packages available for reading and dis-

tributing Netnews on a variety of operating systems (Unix, VMS,

VM/CMS, MVS, Macintosh, MS-DOS and OS/2) and environments (Emacs,

X-Windows, MS-Windows). See the list of freely available news

reader software packages in Appendix A. Note that the number of

software packages available to run news, especially on PCs, is

increasing.

In addition to the software packages specifically designed to be

news readers, many other communications programs, particular mail

interfaces, provide the possibility for Usenet access in addition

to their main function.

Most, if not all, of the news readers provide the same basic

abilities:

* Subscribing to newsgroups: This means that your news reading

software will make these groups immediately accessible, so

that you can choose to read the postings of groups that

interest you quickly and easily.

* Unsubscribing from newsgroups: Removing groups from your

easy access list.

* Reading newsgroup postings: Your news reader presents post-

ings to you and keeps track of which postings you have and

have not read.

* Threads of discussion: You can follow groups of postings

that deal with the same subject easily.

* Posting to news groups: You can participate in group discus-

sions; your news reader knows where to send your posting.

* Responding to a posting: You can send a response to the

newsgroup (often called follow-up) or to the author of a

posting (often called reply).

Examples

When you enter the tin news reader, you get a listing of the

newsgroups to which you are subscribed:

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Group Selection (9) h=help

1 30637 bit.listserv.novell local list

2 1106 comp.mail.misc General discussions about compu

3 8031 comp.protocols.tcp-ip TCP and IP network protocols.

4 840 comp.sys.mac

5 8789 news.answers Repository for periodic USENET

-> 6 29 news.lists News-related statistics and lis

7 15056 rec.woodworking Hobbyists interested in woodwor

8 7094 sci.psychology Topics related to psychology.

9 13093 soc.culture.celtic Celtic, Irish, & Welsh culture

*** End of Groups ***

----------------------------------------------------------------

In tin, selecting a newsgroup is done with the arrow keys. When

you select a group, you get a listing of the articles:

----------------------------------------------------------------

comp.mail.misc (41T 64A 0K 0H) h=help

1 + RIPEM Frequently Noted Vulnerabilities Marc VanHeyningen

2 + RIPEM Frequently Asked Questions Marc VanHeyningen

3 + Mail Archive Server software list Jonathan I. Kamen

4 + 1 UNIX Email Software Survey FAQ Chris Lewis

5 + 2 PC Eudora and Trumpet Winsock problem Jim Graham

6 + X11 mail reader Dominique Marant

7 + MIME supporting e-mail Tim Goodwin

8 + 1 IBM User name and Address Server Wes Spears

9 + 5 Newbie needs MHS/SMTP question answered Chris Pearce

10 + FAQ - pine Bruce Lilly

11 + FAQ: International E-mail accessibility Olivier M.J. Crep

-> 12 + PC E-Mail and Dial-in Edward Vielmetti

13 + Prodigy Mail Manager "01/07" an33127@anon.pene

14 + Prodigy Mail Manager "02/07" an33127@anon.pene

15 + Prodigy Mail Manager "03/07" an33127@anon.pene

----------------------------------------------------------------

tins is a threaded news reader: replies to a posting are grouped

together with the original posting, so that the reader can follow

a thread of discussion. Above, you see the threads, the number of

replies in each thread, the subject and the author. The plus sign

(+) indicates that not all postings in the thread have been read.

Other news readers show other details. When you select an item,

it appears on your screen:

----------------------------------------------------------------

Wed, 01 Sep 1993 07:05:49 comp.mail.misc Thread 13 of 41

Lines 27 Re: PC E-Mail and Dial-in No responses

emv@garnet.msen.com Edward Vielmetti at Msen, Inc. -- Ann Arbor

Sherry H. Lake (slake@mason1.gmu.edu) wrote:

: I am looking for an email package that will allow a user to

: dial-in to his mail machine download any messages to his local

: PC, delete the messages from the server and then automatically

: sign him off. The user can then use his client software (local)

: to read, compose and reply. He then would have to dial-in again

: to so his outgoing mail will be uploaded to the server.

Various POP clients for PCs or Windows Sockets will do roughly

this. You should look at:

- NUPOP (MS-DOS)

- Eudora for Windows (Windows)

- WinQVT/Net (Windows)

- various commercial POP clients listed in the 'alt.winsock'

directory of commercial Windows systems

You'll want to look particularly for dial up IP software (SLIP or

PPP) that makes the process of connecting minimally onerous, e.g.

by scripting the session so that the users don't have to type

anything, perhaps by automatically dialing for you when you go to

read or otherwise open a network connection, and offering a

reasonable way to disconnect.

Edward Vielmetti, vice president for research, Msen Inc.

emv@Msen.com Msen Inc., 628 Brooks, Ann Arbor MI 48103

+1 313 998 4562 (fax: 998 4563)

----------------------------------------------------------------

Learning more about NETNEWS

News programs communicate with each other according to standard

protocols, some of which are described by Internet Request For

Comments (RFC). Copies of RFCs are often posted to the network

and obtainable from archive sites. Current news-related RFCs

include the following:

RFC 977 specifies NNTP, the Network News Transfer Protocol,

RFC 1036 specifies the format of Usenet articles.

Some newsgroups carry articles and discussions on the use of

Usenet, notably: news.announce.newusers, news.answers and

news.newusers.questions.

Many of the articles which appear periodically in these news-

groups or in others are also available from rtfm.mit.edu by anon-

ymous FTP or by mail to: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu

Part 7

OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST

ASTRA

What is ASTRA

The ASTRA service allows users to retrieve documents from

databases known by ASTRA throughout the network. Users can send

their queries to the ASTRA server which in turn forwards the

query to the related database servers. This provides an easy-

to-use uniform access method to a large number of databases.

ASTRA provides the same user interface for all databases it can

access, even if the database servers have different access lan-

guages, such as STAIRS, ISIS or SQL.

Each database defined in ASTRA has an abstract which holds

information about the database: title, name of the maintainers,

a brief description of the database, the main topics of the data-

base and its language. Users are advised to look at the

abstracts before sending requests, to avoid sending requests to

the wrong databases.

Some databases actually combine several different databases that

deal with the same topics. When a user sends a request for such a

database, the request is forwarded to all related databases.

How to get to ASTRA

Anyone who can send electronic mail to EARN/Bitnet can access

ASTRA. Interactive user interfaces (clients) to ASTRA are avail-

able for VM and VMS systems on the EARN/Bitnet network. For all

other users, there is a batch language that permits batch queries

using e-mail.

Currently there are five ASTRA servers installed at the

following addresses:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| ASTRADB@ICNUCEVM.BITNET |

| ASTRASQL@ICNUCEVM.BITNET |

| ASTRADB@IFIBDP.BITNET |

| ASTRADB@IFIIDG.BITNET |

| ASTRADB@IRMKANT.BITNET |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Learning more about ASTRA

An extensive help file is available by sending the command HELP

to ASTRADB@ICNUCEVM.BITNET.

The LISTSERV list ASTRA-UG is used for the distribution of a

newsletter about new databases or new versions of the current

databases. To subscribe, send the command:

SUB ASTRA-UG Your Name

to LISTSERV@ICNUCEVM.BITNET.

An ASTRA newsletter is also available by sending the command NEWS

to ASTRADB@ICNUCEVM.BITNET.

The developers of the ASTRA service may be contacted at:

ASTRA@ICNUCEVM.CNUCE.CNR.IT

NETSERV

What is NETSERV

NETSERV is a server, which allows fast access to data files and

programs of interest to the EARN/Bitnet community. NETSERV pro-

vides a repository consisting of information files and programs.

It allows users to retrieve files, to store files and to sub-

scribe to the files of their choice. The latter two functions

however, require that the user have a password for NETSERV (this

is called a privileged user).

In order to achieve a balanced load on the network and a faster

response time to users, NETSERV uses a distributed server con-

cept: this is achieved by the installation of a large number of

servers on the network to ensure that the user can locate a near-

by server. All servers communicate with each other to distribute

updated information and make it available from each copy of the

server.

NETSERV's file server functions include retrieving any file

present in its filelists, storing new versions of a file, and

subscribing to files stored on the server. Its file directories

are arranged in an hierarchical method, with NETSERV FILELIST

being on top or at the root of the filelists. This filelist can

be obtained by sending a GET NETSERV FILELIST command to any

NETSERV. Filelists contain short descriptions of the files, and

two access codes for each file. These codes represent the get and

put privileges required for that file. These codes are explained

at the beginning of the NETSERV FILELIST file.

How to get to NETSERV

The server is available in almost every country. To find the

closest server for your area send a QUERY SERVICE command to a

server. The following are examples of NETSERV server

addresses:

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| NETSERV@FRMOP11.BITNET |

| NETSERV@HEARN.BITNET |

| NETSERV@BITNIC.BITNET |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

In EARN, there is only one NETSERV permitted for one country.

However, in some limited cases, such as when the country has a

large number of nodes, additional servers may be installed. In

any case, the user is not required to run NETSERV to be able to

access and use the server.

NETSERV accepts e-mail access from users on any network. Com-

mands to NETSERV should be placed in the body of the mail file,

and not in the Subject: line.

For users in the EARN/Bitnet network, NETSERV is accessible via

interactive message. Commands from privileged users requiring a

password must be sent this way.

NETSERV does not have delivery limitations, except that a file

ordered from NETSERV cannot be ordered again on the same day.

Learning more about NETSERV

The server provides a large helpfile which can be obtained by

sending a GET NETSERV HELPFILE command to any NETSERV.

A list for NETSERV maintainers is available as

NETSRV-M@HEARN.BITNET.

Additional information can be obtained from the NETSERV main-

tainer, Ulrich Giese at U001212@HEARN.BITNET.

MAILBASE

What is MAILBASE

Mailbase is an electronic information service with much of the

Mailbase

same functionality as LISTSERV. It allows United Kingdom groups

to manage their own discussion topics (Mailbase lists) and asso-

ciated files. The Mailbase service is run as part of the JANET

Networked Information Services Project (NISP) based at Newcastle

University.

How to get to MAILBASE

Commands should be sent in an electronic mail message to mail-

base@uk.ac.mailbase. More than one command may appear in a mes-

sage to Mailbase. Commands may be in any order, in UPPER, lower,

or MiXeD case.

Learning more about MAILBASE

For a summary of Mailbase commands, send the command help in an

e-mail message to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk. For a list of on-line

documentation about Mailbase, send the command: index mailbase.

You can then use the send command to retrieve those documents

that interest you. Eg, to retrieve a file of frequently asked

questions, send the following command: send mailbase user-faq.

User support is also available by sending queries in an e-mail

message to:

mailbase-helpline@uk.ac.mailbase

Public files on Mailbase are also available by anonymous FTP to

mailbase.ac.uk

PROSPERO

What is PROSPERO

Prospero is a distributed file system. It differs from tradi-

tional distributed file systems in several ways. In traditional

file systems, the mapping of names to files is the same for all

users. Prospero supports user centered naming: users construct

customized views of the files that are accessible. A virtual

system defines this view and controls the mapping from names to

files. Objects may be organized in multiple ways and the same

object may appear in different virtual systems, or even with mul-

tiple names in the same virtual system.

In Prospero, the global file system consists of a collection of

virtual file systems. Virtual file systems usually start as a

copy of a prototype. The root contains links to files or direc-

tories selected by the user.

The Prospero file system provides tools that make it easier to

keep track of and organize information in large systems. When

first created, your virtual file system is likely to contain

links to directories that organize information in different ways.

As the master copy of each of these directories is updated, you

will see the changes. You may customize these directories. The

changes you make to a customized directory are only seen from

within your own virtual system, but changes made to the master

copy will also be visible to you.

Users are encouraged to organize their own projects and papers in

a manner that will allow them to be easily added to the master

directory. For example, users should consider creating a virtual

directory that contains pointers to copies of each of the papers

that they want made available to the outside world. This virtual

directory may appear anywhere in the user's virtual system. Once

set up, a link may be added to the master author directory. In

this manner, others will be able to find this directory. Once

added to the master directory, any future changes will be immedi-

ately available to other users.

How to get to PROSPERO

In order to use Prospero, you must be on the international TCP/IP

network (the Internet) and you must have Prospero running on your

computer.

Before you can begin using the Prospero file system a virtual

system must be created for you. However, Prospero, as shipped, is

configured so that once you compile the clients you can type:

vfsetup guest and start working right out of the box using a

guest virtual system at the USC Information Sciences Institute.

The latest version of PROSPERO is available as file prospe-

ro.tar.Z for anonymous FTP from prospero.isi.edu in the directory

/pub/prospero.

Learning more about PROSPERO

Prospero is being developed by Clifford Newman. Several documents

and articles describing Prospero by Newman and others are avail-

able.

The following files are available via anonymous FTP from prospe-

prospe

ro.isi.edu. They are also available through Prospero.

ro.isi.edu

* Anonymous FTP: /pub/papers/prospero/prospero-oir.ps.Z,

* Prospero: /papers/subjects/operating-systems/prospero/

prospero-oir.ps.Z.

This is a useful first paper to read. It gives a good overview of

Prospero and what it does. It also describes a bit about the Vir-

tual System model, of which Prospero is a prototype implementa-

tion. It describes what Prospero does, not how it does it.

* Anonymous FTP: /pub/papers/prospero/prospero-bii.ps.Z,

* Prospero: /papers/subjects/operating-systems/prospero/

prospero-bii.ps.Z.

This paper describes how Prospero can be used to integrate Inter-

net information services, including Gopher, WAIS, archie, and

World Wide Web.

IRC

What is IRC

IRC, Internet Relay Chat, is a real-time conversational system.

IRC

It is similar to the talk command which is available on many

machines in the Internet. IRC does everything talk does, but it

allows more than 2 users to talk at once, with access throughout

the global Internet, It also provides many other useful features.

IRC is networked over much of North America, Europe, and Asia.

When you are talking in IRC, everything you type will instantly

be transmitted around the world to other users who are connected

at the time. They can then type something and respond to your

messages.

Topics of discussion on IRC are varied. Technical and political

discussions are popular, especially when world events are in

progress. IRC is also a way to expand your horizons, as people

from many countries and cultures are on, 24 hours a day. Most

conversations are in English, but there are always channels in

German, Japanese, and Finnish, and occasionally other languages.

How to get to IRC

Clients and servers for IRC are available via anonymous FTP from

cs.bu.edu. A few sites offer public access to IRC via Telnet. Two

such sites are wbrt.wb.psu.edu and irc.demon.co.uk. At both

sites, you should log in as irc.

The many server hosts of Internet Relay Chat throughout the net-

work are connected via a tree structure. The various servers

relay control and message data among themselves to advertise the

existence of other servers, users, and the channels and other

resources being occupied by those users.

Fundamental to the operation of IRC is the concept of a channel.

All users are on a channel while inside IRC. You enter the null

channel first. You cannot send any messages until you enter a

chatting channel, unless you have set up a private conversation

in some way. The number of channels is essentially unlimited.

Learning more about IRC

To get help while in IRC, type /help and follow the instructions.

If you have problems, you can contact Christopher Davis

(ckd@eff.org) or Helen Rose (hrose@eff.org) - known on IRC as ckd

and Trillian, respectively. You can also ask for help on some of

the operator channels on IRC, for example #twilight_zone and

#eu-opers.

Various documents on IRC, and the archives of IRC-related mailing

lists, are available via anonymous FTP from ftp.kei.com.

RELAY

What is RELAY

The RELAY server system is a set of servers in the global EARN/

Bitnet network which broadcast interactive messages from one user

to other users signed on to the same channel of the RELAY system.

A user signed on to the closest available RELAY is also virtually

signed on to all RELAYs which are linked to it. Most RELAYs are

closed during peak hours. Only some RELAYs are up 24 hours a day.

Each RELAY server provides service to a specific collection of

one or more nodes designated as a service area. The functions of

RELAY are available to EARN/Bitnet users with access to interac-

tive messages who have not been expressly excluded from the sys-

tem by RELAY management.

RELAY is a program which allows several people to talk at the

same time. In order to start, you must sign on to a RELAY to

place your ID in the current user list. You communicate with

RELAY through messages just as you would send messages to a

user. RELAY commands start with a slash(/) character; anything

not beginning with a slash is considered a message and is sent

back out to all other current users.

How to get to RELAY

RELAY is available at the following EARN/Bitnet addresses, and

others. The nickname of the RELAY machine is in parentheses.

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

| |

| RELAY@ASUACAD (Sun_Devils) RELAY@PURCCVM (Purdue) |

| RELAY@AUVM (Wash_DC) RELAY@SEARN (Stockholm) |

| RELAY@BEARN (Belgium) RELAY@TAMVM1 (Aggieland) |

| RELAY@BNANDP11 (Namur) RELAY@TAUNIVM (Israel) |

| RELAY@CEARN (Geneva) RELAY@TECMTYVM (Monterrey) |

| RLY@CORNELLC (Ithaca_NY) RELAY@TREARN (EgeRelay |

| RELAY@CZHRZU1A (Zurich) MASRELAY@UBVM (Buffalo) |

| RELAY@DEARN (Germany) RELAY@UFRJ (RioJaneiro) |

| RELAY@DKTC11 (Copenhagen) RELAY@UIUCVMD (Urbana_IL) |

| RELAY@FINHUTC (Finland) RELAY@USCVM (LosAngeles) |

| RELAY@GITVM1 (Atlanta) RELAY@UTCVM (Tennessee) |

| RELAY@GREARN (Hellas) RELAY@UWAVM (Seattle) |

| RELAY@HEARN (Holland) RELAY@VILLVM (Philadelph) |

| RELAY@ITESMVF1 (Mexico) RELAY@VMTECQRO (Queretaro) |

| RELAY@JPNSUT00 (Tokyo) RELAY@VTBIT (Va_Tech) |

| RELAY@NDSUVM1 (No_Dakota) RELAY@WATDCS (Waterloo) |

| RELAY@NYUCCVM (NYU) RELAY@YALEVM (Yale) |

| |

+---------------------------------------------------------------+

RELAY is available to users on the EARN/Bitnet network via inter-

active message (eg, the TELL command of VM or the SEND command of

VMS/JNET). All RELAY server machines are on IBM VM/CMS systems,

but you do not have to be a VM user in order to use RELAY. If you

are not in the EARN/Bitnet network, you can not use RELAY.

CHAT, a full-screen interface to send and receive TELL messages

for VM systems, is particularly useful for users of RELAY. CHAT

is available from any NETSERV.

Learning more about RELAY

Upon registration, the files RELAY INFO and RELAY USERGUIDE are

sent to the user. These two files give a comprehensive descrip-

tion of RELAY.

A brief guide to RELAY is available from the EARN documentation

filelist. Send mail to LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET. In the body of

the message, write: GET RELAY MEMO.

Appendix A

Freely available networking software

Below you will find the location of client software for several

of the tools described in this guide (Gopher, WWW, WAIS and Net-

news). This is not a complete listing of available software for

any of these tools.

Gopher clients

Environment FTP site & directory Comments

Unix boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/Unix

VMS boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/VMS

job.acs.ohio-state.edu

XGOPHER_CLIENT.SHARE for Wollongong or UCX

VM/CMS boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/Rice_CMS

boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/VieGOPHER

MVS boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/mvs

Macintosh boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/Macintosh-TurboGopher

ftp.cc.utah.edu

/pub/gopher/Macintosh requires MacTCP

ftp.bio.indiana.edu

/util/gopher/gopherapp requires MacTCP

OS/2 boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/os2

MS-DOS boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/PC_client requires packet driver

oac.hsc.uth.tmc.edu

/public/dos/misc dosgopher, for PC/TCP

bcm.tmc.edu

/nfs/gopher.exe for PC-NFS

lennon.itn.med.umich.edu

/dos/gopher for LAN Workplace for DOS

MS-Windows sunsite.unc.edu

/pub/micro/pc-stuff/ms-windows/winsock/apps Gopherbook

X-Windows boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/Unix xgopher (Athena widgets)

boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/Unix moog (Motif)

boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/Unix/xvgopher or Xview

Next boombox.micro.umn.edu

/pub/gopher/NeXT

World-Wide Web clients

Environment FTP site & directory Comments

Unix info.cern.ch

/pub/www/src WWW line-mode browser

ftp2.cc.ukans.edu

/pub/WWW/lynx Lynx browser for vt100 terminals

archive.cis.ohio-state.edu

/pub/w3browser tty-based browser written in perl

VMS info.cern.ch

/pub/www/bin/vms port of NCSA Mosaic for X

Macintosh info.cern.src

/pub/www/bin/mac requires MacTCP

MS-Windows fatty.law.cornell.edu Cello

/pub/LII/Cello

Emacs moose.cs.indiana.edu

/pub/elisp/w3

X-Windows info.cern.ch

/pub/www/src tkWWW Browser/Editor

info.cern.ch

/pub/www/src MidasWWW Browser for X/Motif

info.cern.ch

/pub/www/src ViolaWWW Browser for X11

ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu

/Web NCSA Mosaic Browser for X11/Motif

Next info.cern.ch

/pub/www/bin/next Browser and Editor

WAIS clients

Environment FTP site & directory Comments

Unix ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/unix-src swais

VMS ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/vms

MVS ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/ibm-mvs

Macintosh ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/mac

OS/2 ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/os2

MS-DOS sunsite.unc.edu

/pub/wais/DOS

hilbert.wharton.upenn.edu

/pub/tcpip PCWAIS

MS-Windows ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/windows WNWAIS

ftp.cnidr.org

/pub/NIDR.tools/wais/pc/windows

Emacs ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/unix-src gwais

X-Windows ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/unix-src xwais

Next ftp.wais.com

/pub/freeware/next

Netnews - news reader software

Environment FTP site & directory Comments

Unix lib.tmc.edu rn also available via e-mail to:

archive-server@bcn.tmc.edu

ftp.coe.montana.edu trn

dkuug.dk nn

ftp.germany.eu.net tin

VMS kuhub.cc.ukans.edu ANU-NEWS

arizona.edu VMS/VNEWS

VM/CMS psuvm.psu.edu NetNews

also available from LISTSERV@PSUVM

ftp.uni-stuttgart.de NNR

cc1.kuleuven.ac.be VMNNTP

MVS ftp.uni-stuttgart.de NNMVS

Mac ftp.apple.com News

MS-DOS ftp.utas.edu.au Trumpet

MS-Windows ftp.utas.edu.au WTrumpet

X-Windows many FTP sites xrn

export.lcs.mit.edu xvnews

Emacs most GNU sites GNUS

for use with GNU Emacs editor

most GNU sites Gnews

for use with GNU Emacs editor

Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

Introduction

Part 1: EXPLORING THE NETWORK

GOPHER

What is Gopher

Who can use Gopher

How to get to Gopher

Using Gopher

VERONICA

Learning more about Gopher

WORLD-WIDE WEB

What is World-Wide Web

Who can use World-Wide Web

How to get to World-Wide Web

Using World-Wide Web

Examples

Learning more about World-Wide Web

Part 2: SEARCHING DATABASES

WAIS

What is WAIS

Who can use WAIS

How to get to WAIS

Using WAIS

E-mail access

Examples

Learning more about WAIS

Part 3: FINDING NETWORK RESOURCES

ARCHIE

What is ARCHIE

Who can use ARCHIE

How to get to ARCHIE

Using ARCHIE

Using a local client

Using Telnet

Using electronic mail

Examples

Learning more about ARCHIE

Part 4: FINDING PEOPLE AND COMPUTERS

WHOIS

What is WHOIS

Who can use WHOIS

How to get to WHOIS

Using WHOIS

Using a local client

Using Telnet

Using electronic mail

Examples

Learning more about WHOIS

X.500

What is X.500

Who can use X.500

How to get to X.500

Using X.500

Using a local client

Using Telnet or X.25

Using electronic mail

Examples

Learning more about X.500

NETFIND

What is NETFIND

Who can use NETFIND

How to get to NETFIND

Using NETFIND

Local access

Remote access

Examples

Learning more about NETFIND

Part 5: GETTING FILES

TRICKLE

What is TRICKLE

Who can use TRICKLE

How to get to TRICKLE

Using TRICKLE

Examples

Learning more about TRICKLE

BITFTP

What is BITFTP

Who can use BITFTP

How to get to BITFTP

Using BITFTP

Examples

Learning more about BITFTP

Part 6: NETWORKED INTEREST GROUPS

LISTSERV (Version 1.7f)

What is LISTSERV

Who can use LISTSERV

How to get to LISTSERV

Using LISTSERV

Commands for LISTS

Commands for FILES

LISTSERV DATABASE Functions

Commands for INFORMATION

Examples

Learning more about LISTSERV

NETNEWS (USENET)

What is NETNEWS

Who can use NETNEWS

How to get to NETNEWS

Using NETNEWS

Examples

Learning more about NETNEWS

Part 7: OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST

ASTRA

What is ASTRA

How to get to ASTRA

Learning more about ASTRA

NETSERV

What is NETSERV

How to get to NETSERV

Learning more about NETSERV

MAILBASE

What is MAILBASE

How to get to MAILBASE

Learning more about MAILBASE

PROSPERO

What is PROSPERO

How to get to PROSPERO

Learning more about PROSPERO

IRC

What is IRC

How to get to IRC

Learning more about IRC

RELAY

What is RELAY

How to get to RELAY

Learning more about RELAY

Appendix A:

Gopher clients

World-Wide Web clients

WAIS clients

Netnews - news reader software